Like many of today’s car manufacturers, Ferrari have their own museum. In fact, they have two: one in the centre of Modena, adjoining and including the site of the house where the young Enzo grew up; and a larger one in Maranello, a few hundred yards from the company’s factory. Called Galleria Ferrari, it opened in 1990 and – unsurprisingly, given the global passion for the brand – it is extremely popular. Whenever I have been, there had been several coaches parked up, which means you know you are not going to get to see the contents of the museum by yourself. Indeed, in 2016, the Ferrari Museums enjoyed a record year, with more than 478,000 visitors, of whom 344,000 came to Maranello. Although the Galleria Ferrari building is quite sizeable, it is only large enough to house a very small proportion of the collection of cars that Ferrari possess, and there are also requirements for other facilities in side such as gift and coffee shops. During 2016, some rethinking was done, resulting in an extension of the museum’s available space by more than 600 square metres to a total of 4,100 square metres, creating a new wing that connects to the existing structure by means of a great continuous glass facade, and a new museum itinerary. In addition, a multi-functional space of about 300 square metres has been built, which can host up to 250 people for events, conventions and educational activities. The refreshments area and the Ferrari Store are also completely new. I first saw the changes when I paid a visit in October 2016, finding that you tour around the facility in more or less the opposite direction to the way you used to. With more or less annual changes to the displays, it was well worth making another visit exactly a year later, though, to see the two new collections that had been opened at the end of May and which would run for the rest of the calendar year, 2017.
These two new exhibitions, called “Under the Skin” and “Infinite Red”, were conceived to celebrate Ferrari in its 70th anniversary year. The former recalls the founder and the evolution of the company’s innovation and style, while the latter covers the company’s history through its models, both on the road and the track.
“UNDER THE SKIN”
The “Under the Skin” exhibition, created in partnership with the London Design Museum, recounts the creative and engineering development of Ferrari down the years through a series of exceptional cars beginning with the 125 S, the marque’s first car. Some technical drawings from the historical archive of the Prancing Horse and the engines on display reveal the design process of cars of all eras, casting an unprecedented eye over the engineering work hidden behind their exterior beauty. Design models and the Wind Gallery also show the evolution of styles and technologies down the years, recalling how Enzo Ferrari was at the forefront of experimenting with new scientific techniques. A parallel exhibition itinerary strongly linked to the first one reminds us of the main biographical stages, the work and the competitive spirit that has made Ferrari famous worldwide. The exhibition was due to move to the London Design Museum shortly after my visit, and would be available to see there from mid-November 2017.
First exhibit to attract me as I walked in was this combination of a mid-engined 250 Le Mans and a wooden forming buck for the legendary 250 GT SWB. The 250 LM model looks to be very much the prototype racer but was intended for production as a road-going GT. Descended from the 250 P, the Le Mans also appeared in 1963 and sported Pininfarina bodywork. Ferrari was unable to persuade the FIA that he would build the 100 examples required to homologate the car for GT racing. Eventually, 32 LMs were built[ up to 1965. As a result, Ferrari withdrew from factory participation in the GT class of the 1965 World Sportscar Championship, allowing the Shelby Cobra team to dominate. A 250LM, competing in the Prototype category, won the 1965 24 Hours of Le Mans. Only the very early LM’s were true 250 models. All the others made as 3300cc models, and as such should have been named 275 LM. The early cars were converted to the 3300cc engine.
This rather petite car is a 166 Touring Berlinetta. Built in 1950, only 6 were produced. It was designed primarily for racing, and was an improvement of earlier models of the Ferrari 166, such as the 166 Barchetta. This “Berlinetta” design was a little heavier than previous models, but was supposed to perform better in high-speed races such as the Le Mans races. Ironically, the two cars that were entered in 1950 for the Le Mans did not finish. The Ferrari 166MM Berlinetta was fitted the same chassis as the Ferrari 166 Barchettas. The bodies were crafted by Superleggera and were completely aluminium. This design of the chassis was created in 1937 by Aderloni. Small diameter tubing was gas welded to create the steel skeleton, which was later fastened to the car. The front suspension was independent with a transverse leaf spring while the rear suspension had a live axle with leaf springs. Large drum brakes were placed on the wheels to better the stopping power, something that Ferrari would continue for several years. The engine received a boost from previous models, now producing 170 horsepower instead of 140. The Berlinetta was produced as a 2-door fastback coupe with a spark ignition 4 stroke V-12 engine. Just like all the other 166s, the car had a 3 carburettor set up. The berlinetta was rear wheel drive. It had a manual 5 speed transmission with a top speed of a 189 km/h, or 117 mph. The 0–60 mph time was 8.5 seconds.
In the next room, rather than showing completed cars there were displays associated with their production, ranging from a styling buck to the wooden buck used to form panels for the 250 GTO.
This styling buck is for the Ferrari J50, which was announced in December 2016, to mark 50 years of Ferrari sales in Japan. Based on the 488 Spider, this was a very limited production spider, with just 10 examples produced.
Engines were the feature of the following room, with a display containing both the real deal and some impressive photos and also here was a chassis tub and the walls were decorated with some fabulous drawings of an array of former models.
A trio of cars built for racing were lined up against the wall. Oldest of these was a 166MM Touring Barchetta. An evolution of the original Colombo V12-powered 125S Racer, the Ferrari 166 S was a sports racing car built between 1948 and 1953. It was adapted into a sports car for the street in the form of the 166 Inter. The Ferrari 166 S was a sports racing car built by Ferrari between 1948 and 1953, an evolution of its Colombo V12-powered 125 S racer. It was adapted into a sports car for the street in the form of the 166 Inter. Only 12 Ferrari 166 S were produced, nine of them with cycle-fenders as the Spyder Corsa. It was soon followed by the updated and highly successful Ferrari 166 MM (Mille Miglia), of which 47 were made from 1948 to 1953. The 166 shared its Aurelio Lampredi-designed tube frame and double wishbone/live axle suspension with the 125. Like the 125, the wheelbase was 2420 mm long. Nine 166 Spyder Corsas and three 166 Sports were built. The first two 166 S models were coachbuilt by Carrozzeria Allemano and the last one by Carlo Anderloni at Carrozzeria Touring. Majority of the 166 MM cars were bodied at Touring in a barchetta form. The 166 shared its Aurelio Lampredi-designed tube frame and double wishbone/live axle suspension with the 125. Like the 125, the wheelbase was 2420 mm long. Nine 166 Spyder Corsas and three 166 Sports were built. The 1.5 litre Gioacchino Colombo-designed V12 engine of the 125 was changed, however, with single overhead camshafts specified and a larger 1995 cc displacement. This was achieved with both a bore and stroke increase, to 60 by 58.8 mm respectively. Output was 110 PS at 5,600 rpm to 130 PS at 6,500 rpm with three carburetors, giving top speed of 170–215 km/h (106–134 mph). For the 166 MM power output rose to 140 PS at 6,600 rpm and top speed to 220 km/h (137 mph). The Ferrari 166 S won Targa Florio with Clemente Biondetti and Igor Troubetzkoy in 1948. In 1949, Biondetti also won in the 166 SC with Benedetti as co-driver. The 166 S won 1948 Mille Miglia, also driven by Bioffers. Its early victories in the Targa Florio and Mille Miglia and others in international competition made the manufacturer a serious competitor in the racing industry. Both were later replaced by the 2.3 litre 195 S.
Parked up with the 166MM were a couple of Formula 1 cars showing just how things changed from those early days to modern motoring racing. First of these was the 640 which competed in the 1989 Formula One World Championship. It was driven by Britain’s Nigel Mansell, in his first season with the team, and Austria’s Gerhard Berger, winning three races between them.
This is the F2007, with which Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro competed during the 2007 Formula One season, it being the fifty-third single-seater car which the team have built to use in Formula One. The chassis was designed by Aldo Costa, Nikolas Tombazis and John Iley with Mario Almondo playing a vital role in leading the production of the car as the team’s director of operations and Gilles Simon leading the engine design. The car is best known for providing Kimi Räikkönen with his first World Championship title and the team with its first Constructor’s title since Michael Schumacher helped them win both in the 2004 Formula One season and the most recent World Drivers’ Championship win for the team as of the end of the 2019 Formula One season. The car was unveiled to the public on January 14, 2007 at Ferrari’s Fiorano test track in Maranello, Italy.
Completing this part of the display was a La Ferrari Aperta. This was launched at the 2016 Paris Show, at which point Ferrari announced that it would be limited to just 210 units, making it even more exclusive than the fixed roof LaFerrari. Initially, 200 cars were sold with an additional nine reserved for use during the Ferrari 70th Anniversary celebrations, and then a further model was announced, to be sold by auction. The LaFerrari Aperta comes with a removable carbon-fibre hard top and a removable soft top. Other changes include more efficient powertrain’s control electronics, re-angled radiators to direct air flow out along the underbody rather than over the bonnet, a longer front air dam to help boost downforce, a L-shaped flap on the upper corner of each windscreen pillar to reduce compression on the rear of the cabin in the absence of a roof, different butterfly door angles with different wheel arches and a new carbon fibre insert allowing the doors to rotate. According to Ferrari, all units were already sold to customers via invitation before the public launch. This was probably the most popular car in the whole museum, certainly in terms of the one that people wanted to be photographed alongside, and I had to return a couple of times to try to get view of just the car and not the crowd.
The rest of the displays combine to form what is being called “Infinite Red”, a celebration the 70-year history of the Prancing Horse with some of Maranello’s most exclusive creations for track and road, some more familiar than others. There are three main display areas, and each is quite different. The Formula One display had not really changed since my last visit, though the cars that were on show certainly had and then there were two large halls containing road cars. Ferraris have a long series of victories to their name: from the 500 F2, with which Alberto Ascari won for Ferrari the first world drivers’ title in 1952, to the F2004, the Ferrari that won the most GPs in history (15, like the F2002) and concluded Michael Schumacher’s epic run of world titles, and finally the F2008, which won the World Constructors’ Championship. Among the GT cars, visitors can admire various models from the 250 family, such as the 250 GT Berlinetta “Tdf”, which dominated races in the second half of the 1950s, its evolution the 250 GT Berlinetta SWB and the 250 GTO, a collectors’ favourite. Then down to the present, the exhibition features a number of limited special series such as the F50, the Enzo and the latest, the LaFerrari, also present in the non-homologated FXX K version for exclusive use on track.
The largest display area upstairs comprised a beautifully curated collection of road cars ranging from some of the earliest and least familiar cars to some of the icons of the late 60s and 70s. There are plenty of additional artefacts around the perimeter of the room.
This is a 1964 500 Superfast, one of a series of Ferrari models which are sometimes known as Ferrari America, as the inspiration to produce them came from America, as indeed did many of the initial customers, and some of them had America in their title. The 500 Superfast was really the end of this line, although it was followed by the 14 examples of the 365 California Spider which were built in 1967. Early in development, and even into production, these cars were to be called “Superamericas”, but the decision was made at the last moment to use “Superfast” instead. The engine was a 5.0 litre Ferrari Colombo V12 engine, generating 395 hp, making the car capable of 280 km/h (174 mph). The engine had the same dimensions as the Lampredi “long-block” engines of the 410 Superamerica, otherwise the design was based on the original Colombo ‘short’ block. The chassis was very similar in construction to the contemporary 330 GT 2+2, and bodywork was again done by Pininfarina. When leaving the factory, the 500 Superfast originally fitted Pirelli Cinturato 205VR15 tyres (CN72). 36 cars were made to 1966, including 12 “series II” models with an updated 5-speed transmission. Production total excludes a one-off 330 GT 2+2 produced with a Superfast-style body for HRH Prince Bernhard of The Netherlands. Only coupes were made and no Superfast roadsters were available. Needless to say, it was very costly when new, listing for more than twice the price of a Rolls Royce. Among the first owners were the Shah of Iran and Peter Sellers.
The Ferrari 250 MM was a sports racing car produced in 1953. After the initial racing successes of the 3.0-litre Colombo V12 engine, introduced in the 250 S one-off, Ferrari produced a serial racing model. It is best recognisable for the distinctive closed berlinetta bodywork by Pinin Farina. The “MM” in its name stood for the Mille Miglia race. The 250 MM was the second of the ubiquitous 3.0-litre, Colombo-engined Ferraris. The engine was derived from the 250 S with increased power, due to a different carburettors setup. The whole car could be seen as an incremental evolution over its predecessor. Chassis numbers for the first time had “MM” in their suffix, and used an even, race car sequence. Two body syles were available, each from a different coachbuilder. Pinin Farina designed an innovative closed berlinetta, which ushered in a whole new era in automotive design. It also served as a basis for future competition berlinetta models produced by Ferrari. Pinin Farina had created eighteen 250 MMs with berlinetta body. An open barchetta body was offered by Vignale and introduced in three series. Every example differed in slight detail from each other. An early series cars had open headlights and a small air vent in the middle of the bonnet. Later cars differed by having recessed and covered headlamps, a closed bonnet bulge, a triangular cutaways in the rear fenders and a lower door line. In total, tvelve open spyders were made. Chief designer at Vignale was Giovanni Michelotti who penned all those designs. The first 250 MM, in a spyder form, was presented in 1952 at the Paris Motor Show. The first berlinetta was also shown in Paris in but a year later. A single berlinetta by Vignale, created in 1954, was owned at one point by Peter Monteverdi. In 1956 he had paid 10,000 Swiss francs for it and also traded in his Porsche 356. Its distinctive feature were the triple portholes on the bottom of the front fenders. One particular example, initially s/n 0352MM, was restamped as 0239EU after a crashed 212 Inter, that was entered in the 1952 Carrera Panamericana. His owner, Efrain Ruiz Echeverria, traded it in for a new car that was renumbered in the factory to avoid import duty. By 1953 Ruiz Echeverria could enter another edition of the Mexican marathon. The car was for sale in 2011. Offered by Talacrest it was bought by Nick Mason. Some examples, like the s/n 0266MM and 0356MM, used “166MM/53” type chassis but with a 3.0-litre, 250 MM-sourced engine. A single example of the Ferrari 340 MM Pinin Farina Berlinetta, that was raced by “Pagnibon”, was downgraded to a 250 MM-specification for Andre Vanoni.
The Ferrari 365 GTB/4 Daytona probably needs little introduction. A Gran Turismo automobile produced from 1968 to 1973, it was first introduced to the public at the Paris Auto Salon in 1968 and replaced the 275 GTB/4. The Daytona was replaced by the mid-engined 365 GT4 Berlinetta Boxer in 1973. Early cars, such as this 1970 example had the plexi-glass front end, before a revised design with pop-up headlights was adopted. The generally accepted total number of Daytonas from the Ferrari club historians is 1,406 over the life of the model. This figure includes 158 right-hand-drive coupés, 122 factory-made spyders (of which 7 are right hand drive), and 15 competition cars in three series with modified lightweight bodies and in various degrees of engine tune. All bodies except the first Pininfarina prototype were produced by Scaglietti As well as the road car, there was a 365 GTB/4C. Three series of client competition cars were built at the factory’s “assistenza clienti” department in Modena. The first were built in 1971 with full aluminium bodies. The second, in early 1972 had steel bodies with aluminium opening panels and extended wheelarches to allow wider wheels and tyres to be fitted. The third, in 19673 were similar but has steel doors. The care were successful in the GT category at Le Mans in 1972 filling the top five positions in their class and they claimed class wins in 1973 and 1974. This is a second series car.
Top of the Ferrari range from the mid 70s for 10 years was the Berlinetta Boxer, object of many a small child’s intense desire, as I can attest from my own childhood! Production of the Berlinetta Boxer was a major step for Enzo Ferrari. He felt that a mid-engined road car would be too difficult for his buyers to handle, and it took many years for his engineers to convince him to adopt the layout. This attitude began to change as the marque lost its racing dominance in the late 1950s to mid-engined competitors. The mid-engined 6- and 8-cylinder Dino racing cars were the result, and Ferrari later allowed for the production Dino road cars to use the layout as well. The company also moved its V12 engines to the rear with its P and LM racing cars, but the Daytona was launched with its engine in front. It was not until 1970 that a mid-engined 12-cylinder road car would appear. The first “Boxer” was the 365 GT4 BB shown at the 1971 Turin Motor Show. Designed to rival the Lamborghini Miura and the newly developed Lamborghini Countach, it was finally released for sale in 1973 at the Paris Motor Show. 387 were built, of which 88 were right-hand drive (of which 58 were for the UK market), making it the rarest of all Berlinetta Boxers. The Pininfarina-designed body followed the P6 show car with popup headlights. Though it shared its numerical designation with the Daytona, the Boxer was radically different. It was a mid-engined car like the Dino, and the now flat-12 engine was mounted longitudinally rather than transversely. Although referred to as a Boxer, the 180° V12 was not a true boxer engine, but rather a flat engine. It had 380 hp, slightly more than the Daytona. The 365 GT4 BB was updated as the BB 512 in 1976, resurrecting the name of the earlier Ferrari 512 racer. The name 512 referred to the car’s 5 litre, 12 cylinder engine; a deviation from Ferrari’s established practice of naming 12-cylinder road cars (as the 365 BB) after their cylinder displacement. The engine was enlarged to 4943.04 cc, with an increased compression ratio of 9.2:1. Power was slightly down to 360 hp, while a dual plate clutch handled the added torque and eased the pedal effort. Dry sump lubrication prevented oil starvation in hard cornering. The chassis remained unaltered, but wider rear tires (in place of the 365’s equally sized on all four corners) meant the rear track grew 63 mm. External differentiators included a new chin spoiler upfront, incorporated in the bumper. A NACA duct on the side provided cooling for the exhaust system. At the rear there were now twin tail lights and exhaust pipes each side, instead of triple units as on the 365 GT4 BB. 929 BB 512 models were produced. The Bosch K-Jetronic CIS fuel injected BB 512i introduced in 1981 was the last of the series. The fuel injected motor produced cleaner emissions and offered a better balance of performance and daily-driver temperament. External differentiators from the BB 512 besides badging include a change to metric sized wheels and the Michelin TRX metric tyre system, small white running lights in the nose, and red rear fog lamps outboard of the exhaust pipes in the rear valance. 1,007 BB 512i models were produced.
The 308 GTB was launched at the Paris Motor Show in 1975 as a direct replacement for the Dino 246. Designed by Pininfarina with sweeping curves and aggressive lines, the 308 has gone on to become one of the most recognised Ferraris of all time. Fitted with a 2.9 litre DOHC V8 engine fed by four Webber 40DCNF Carburettors, the power output of 255bhp was sufficient to propel the 308 from 0 to 60 mph in 6.5 seconds and on to a top speed of 159 mph. Tougher emissions standards in the 1980s challenged Ferrari more than many other marques. In 1980, fuel injection was adopted for the first time on the 308 GTB and GTS models, and power dropped quite noticeably fro 240 bhp to 214bhp. Two years later, at the 1982 Paris Motor Show, Ferrari launched the 308 quattrovalvole, in GTB and GTS form. The main change from the 308 GTBi/GTSi it succeeded were the 4-valves per cylinder—hence its name, which pushed output back up to 240 hp restoring some of the performance lost to the emission control equipment. The new model could be recognised by the addition of a slim louvred panel in the front lid to aid radiator exhaust air exit, power operated mirrors carrying a small enamel Ferrari badge, a redesigned radiator grille with rectangular driving lights on each side, and rectangular (in place of round) side repeaters. The interior also received some minor updates, such as a satin black three spoke steering wheel with triangular centre; cloth seat centres became available as an option to the standard full leather. Available included metallic paint, a deep front spoiler, air conditioning, wider wheels, 16-inch Speedline wheels with Pirelli P7 tyres, and a satin black roof aerofoil (standard on Japanese market models). Apart from the 32-valve cylinder heads, the V8 engine was essentially of the same design as that used in the 308 GTSi model. The gear and final drive ratios were altered to suit the revised characteristics of the four valves per cylinder engine. One other significant benefit of the QV four valve heads was the replacement of the non-QV models sodium valves which have been known to fail at the joint between the head and the stem. Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection and Marelli Digiplex electronic ignition were carried over from the GTBi/GTSi. The car was produced in this form until the launch of the 328 models in the autumn of 1985 which had larger 3.2 litre engines and a number of styling changes. 308 GTB models are becoming increasingly sought after, with prices rising steadily and quite steeply.
From a much earlier age was this 195 Inter. Produced in 1950, this was the grand tourer (GT) version of the Ferrari 195 S racer. Introduced at the 1950 Paris Motor Show, it was similar to the 166 Inter shown a year earlier and was aimed at the same affluent clientele. Like the last of the 166 Inters, the wheelbase was stretched by 3.1 in to 98.4 in, but the larger 2341 cc version of the Colombo V12 was the true differentiator. The engine increase was accomplished by pushing the bore from 60 to 65 mm, retaining the 58.8 mm stroke. A single Weber 36DCF carburettor was normally fitted, for a total output of 130 PS though some used triple carbs. 27 were built in less than a year, receiving the odd-numbered chassis numbers. Out of the 28 cars, 13 were bodied by Carrozzeria Vignale, 11 by Carrozzeria Ghia, 3 by Carrozzeria Touring and 1 by Motto. The more-potent (but otherwise similar) Ferrari 212 Inter was introduced at the 1951 Paris Motor Show and replaced the 195 Inter.
The 246 GT Dino was the first automobile manufactured by Ferrari in high numbers. It is lauded by many for its intrinsic driving qualities and groundbreaking design. It started out as the Dino 206 GT, designed by Aldo Brovarone and Leonardo Fioravanti at Pininfarina and built by Scaglietti. It had the soft edges and curving lines typical of earlier Italian cars, unlike its angular successor, the 308 GT4. The 206 GT used a transverse-mounted 2.0 litre all-aluminium, 65-degree V6 engine with dual overhead camshafts and a 9:1 compression ratio, making 180 PS (178 bhp) at the 8,000 rpm redline. Torque was 138 lb/ft (187 Nm) at 6,500 rpm. The crankshaft featured four main bearings. Induction was via three Weber 40 DCN/4 2-barrel carburettors. The 206 GT was the first car sold by Ferrari which used an electronic ignition, a Dinoplex C capacitive discharge ignition system that was developed by Magneti Marelli for the high revving Dino V6 engine (hence the name Dinoplex). It was also the first Ferrari product to have a direct rack-and-pinion steering. The 206 GT frame featured a light-weight, aluminium body, full independent suspension, and all round disc brakes. It had a 90.0-inch (2,290 mm) wheelbase and a top speed of 146 mph (235 km/h). The same 1,986 cc engine was used in the Fiat Dino Coupe and Spider, produced during the same period. The conversion of the Dino 206 SP/S twin-cam racing engine for road-going use in the Dino (and the two Fiat models) was entrusted by Fiat to Aurelio Lampredi, to whom Ferrari owed so many great engines. Lampredi, interviewed in the early 1980s (he died in 1989 at the age of 71), noted that, “Things didn’t work out exactly as Ferrari had foreseen.” Ferrari had counted on building the engines at Maranello, but Fiat’s management insisted on taking control of production, to avoid any breaks in the engine supply.Fiat quoted 160 hp DIN for the Fiat Dino and Coupé, and in 1967 Ferrari – presenting the first prototype of the Dino 206 GT – claimed 180 hp. This, however, was not the case. Both engines were made by Fiat workers in Turin on the same production line, without any discrimination as to their destination, and all were exactly the same. 150 units were simply taken from the first production batch at the beginning of 1968 to power the Dino 206 GTs. 152 were built in total between 1967-1969, in left hand drive only. Calls for more power were answered with the Dino 246 GT launched in 1969, which had a 2.4 litre Dino 65° V6 engine, DOHC, 2 valves per cylinder, 9.0:1 compression ratio, iron block with alloy heads. It produced 195 PS (192 bhp) at 7,600 rpm and 226 Nm; 166 lb/ft at 5,500 rpm of torque, and was available as a fixed-top GT coupé or, after 1971, an open Spyder GTS. A detuned American version had an exhaust air pump, and timing changes which created 175 hp. The GT had 3X2-barrel 40 DCNF/6 or 40 DCNF/7 Weber carburetors. For the 246 a new version of the Dinoplex ignition was deployed, the more compact Magneti Marelli AEC103A system. The 246 Dino GT weighed 2,380 lb (1,080 kg). The 246 Dino GTS weighed 2,426 lb (1,100 kg). The body was now made of steel to save cost. The 246 Dino had a 2.1-inch longer wheelbase than the 206, at 92.1 inches. The height of the 246 was the same as the 206 at 43.9 inches. Dino 246 production numbered 2,295 GT coupés and 1,274 GTS spyders, the latter being built after the Series III revision from 1972 to 1974 only, for a total production run of 3,569 cars. Three series of the Dino were built, with differences in wheels, windshield wiper coverage, and engine ventilation. The Series I cars, 357 of which were built until the summer of 1970, used the same center-bolt wheels and “clapping hands” windscreen wipers as did the 206. Series II cars (built until July 1971 in 507 examples) received five-bolt Cromodora alloys and parallel moving wipers. The Series III cars had minor differences in gearing and fuel supply, and were built at a much higher rate as sales in the United States commenced with this version. 1,431 Series III GT coupés and 1,274 GTS removable top cars were built.
The Ferrari 340 MM was an evolution of the 340 Mexico with shorter, 2,500 mm (98.4 in), wheelbase. MM used the same 4.1 L Lampredi V12 with similar three Weber 40DCF carburettors that helped the 340 achieve 280 PS at 6600 rpm and a maximum speed of 282 km/h.10 examples were made, 4 Pinin Farina Berlinettas, 2 Touring Spyders and 4 Vignale Spyders (designed by Giovanni Michelotti). A total of four were converted to 375 MM spec. Giannino Marzotto won Mille Miglia 1953 edition in Vignale spider, setting a new average speed record for the race; with other 340 MM finishing fourth. Two more 340 MMs were entered that year in Touring barchetta guise but did not finish.
Another 166MM was here, this one with a Vignale body.
The 750 Monza was introduced in 1954, and the new car was a four-cylinder sports racer. Sporting a three-litre version of the 500 Mondial’s engine, the Monza was much more powerful, with 250 hp available, but barely heavier at 760 kg (1675 lb). The new-style body was penned by Pinin Farina and presaged the droop-nose look of the famed 250 GTO, but it was Scaglietti’s 750 Monza, with its faired-in headrest suggesting the flowing Testa Rossa that drew attention. Alberto Ascari was killed in the car during an impromptu testing session at Monza in 1955. Mike Hawthorn and Umberto Maglioli piloted their 750 Monza to victory at Monza on its very first race, giving the car its name. Although they were strong on the track, the Monza was unable to hold off the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR in 1955, allowing the Germans to seize the sports car championship that Ferrari claimed in 1954.
There were a couple of examples of the 250 Tour de France here. The original 250 GT Berlinetta, nicknamed the “Long Wheelbase Berlinetta”, was also called the “Tour de France” after competing in the 10-day Tour de France automobile race, which the car won in 1956, 157 and 1958. Seventy-seven Tour de France cars were built, of which a number were sold for GT races from 1956 through 1959. Construction was handled by Carrozzeria Scaglietti based on a Pinin Farina design. The engine began at 240 PS but eventually rose to 260 PS. Pirelli Cinturato 165R400 tyres (CA67) were standard. At the 1956 Geneva Motor Show, Scaglietti displayed their own 250 GT prototype, which became known as the limited-production, Series I, “no-louvre” 250 GT Berlinetta. The first customer car was built in May 1956, with production now the responsibility of Scaglietti in Modena. Fourteen “no-louvre” and nine “14-louvre” Series I and II Berliettas were made. There were four series of 250 GT Berlinettas. In mid-1957 the Series III cars were introduced, with three louvres and covered headlights. Eighteen were produced. The 36 Series IV cars; retained the covered headlights and had a single vent louvre. Zagato also made five “no-louvre” superlight cars to Ugo Zagato’s design.
This part of the exhibition contained a number of more recent cars, a selection of the recent limited edition hypercars that Ferrari have produced every few years. There was not space for all of them, so no 288 GTO or Enzo sadly, but this was still a popular part of the display and I had to wait quite patiently to get the photos devoid of other visitors.
The F40 of 1987 was the successor to the 288 GTO. It was designed to celebrate Ferrari’s 40th anniversary and was the last Ferrari automobile personally approved by Enzo Ferrari. At the time it was Ferrari’s fastest, most powerful, and most expensive car for sale. As soon as the 288 GTO was launched, Ferrari started the development of an evolution model, intended to compete against the Porsche 959 in FIA Group B. However, when the FIA brought an end to the Group B category for the 1986 season, Enzo Ferrari was left with five 288 GTO Evoluzione development cars, and no series in which to campaign them. Enzo’s desire to leave a legacy in his final supercar allowed the Evoluzione program to be further developed to produce a car exclusively for road use. In response to the quite simple, but very expensive car with relatively little out of the ordinary being called a “cynical money-making exercise” aimed at speculators, a figure from the Ferrari marketing department was quoted as saying “We wanted it to be very fast, sporting in the extreme and Spartan,” “Customers had been saying our cars were becoming too plush and comfortable.” “The F40 is for the most enthusiastic of our owners who want nothing but sheer performance. It isn’t a laboratory for the future, as the 959 is. It is not Star Wars. And it wasn’t created because Porsche built the 959. It would have happened anyway.” Power came from an enlarged, 2936 cc version of the GTO’s twin IHI turbocharged V8 developing 478 bhp. The F40 did without a catalytic converter until 1990 when US regulations made them a requirement for emissions control reasons. The flanking exhaust pipes guide exhaust gases from each bank of cylinders while the central pipe guides gases released from the wastegate of the turbochargers. Engines with catalytic converters bear F120D code. The suspension was similar to the GTO’s double wishbone setup, though many parts were upgraded and settings were changed; the unusually low ground clearance prompted Ferrari to include the ability to raise the vehicle’s ground clearance when necessary. The body was an entirely new design by Pininfarina featuring panels made of Kevlar, carbon fibre, and aluminium for strength and low weight, and intense aerodynamic testing was employed. Weight was further minimised through the use of a plastic windscreen and windows. The cars did have air conditioning, but had no sound system, door handles, glove box, leather trim, carpets, or door panels. The first 50 cars produced had sliding Lexan windows, while later cars were fitted with wind down windows. The F40 was designed with aerodynamics in mind. For speed the car relied more on its shape than its power. Frontal area was reduced, and airflow greatly smoothed, but stability rather than terminal velocity was a primary concern. So too was cooling as the forced induction engine generated a great deal of heat. In consequence, the car was somewhat like an open-wheel racing car with a body. It had a partial undertray to smooth airflow beneath the radiator, front section, and the cabin, and a second one with diffusers behind the motor, but the engine bay was not sealed. Nonetheless, the F40 had an impressively low Cd of 0.34 with lift controlled by its spoilers and wing. The factory never intended to race the F40, but the car saw competition as early as 1989 when it debuted in the Laguna Seca Raceway round of the IMSA, appearing in the GTO category, with a LM evolution model driven by Jean Alesi, finishing third to the two faster space-framed four wheel drive Audi 90 and beating a host of other factory backed spaceframe specials that dominated the races. Despite lack of factory backing, the car would soon have another successful season there under a host of guest drivers such as Jean-Pierre Jabouille, Jacques Laffite and Hurley Haywood taking a total of three second places and one third. It would later be a popular choice by privateers to compete in numerous domestic GT series. Although the original plan was to build jyst 400 cars, such was the demand that in the end, 1311 were built over a 4 year period.
Fans who wanted to see what Ferrari would do next did not have too long to wait, as the next hypercar, the F50 appeared 4 years later, in 1995. This could almost be seen as a Formula 1 car for the road, as this mid-engined two seat roadster with a removable hardtop had a 4.7 litre naturally aspirated 60-valve V12 engine that was developed from the 3.5 litre V12 used in the 1990 Ferrari 641 Formula One car. Only 349 cars were made, of which 301 were red. Just 4 of them were black, making it, along with silver the least produced colour of the limited palate offered. The last F50 was produced in July 1997. These days this is the rarest of the quintet.
If you wanted the most recent in the series, the 2013 LaFerrari, it was almost a pre-requisite that you had bought one of all the others, and probably a few other Ferraris as well. Launched at the 2013 Geneva Show, along with the Porsche 918 Spyder and McLaren P1, the LaFerrari has the distinction of being the first mild hybrid from Ferrari, which ensures that as well as providing the highest power output of any Ferrari, fuel consumption can be decreased by up to 40 percent. Owners may not care, but regulators certainly do! LaFerrari’s internal combustion engine is a mid-rear mounted Ferrari F140 65° V12 with a 6262 cc capacity producing 800 PS (789 bhp) @ 9000 rpm and 700 N·m (520 lbf·ft) of torque @ 6,750 rpm, supplemented by a 163 PS (161 bhp) KERS unit (called HY-KERS), which will provide short bursts of extra power. The KERS system adds extra power to the combustion engine’s output level for a total of 963 PS (950 bhp) and a combined torque of 900 Nm (664 lb/ft). Ferrari claims CO2 emissions of 330 g/km. It is connected to a 7-speed dual-clutch transmission and the car is rear-wheel drive. 499 units were built, each costing over $1million.
These were all road cars. Ferrari has also, in recent times, produced some very limited numbers of cars that were purpose-designed for the track. Indeed, these have not been road-legal, and those lucky enough to afford them have found that Ferrari keeps custody of “their” car, making it available at the track of choice when required. The latest of these is the FXX K, of which just 40 units were made. The FXX K is based on the street-legal LaFerrari. It is a successor to the FXX and the 599XX. The “FXX K” is Ferrari’s research and development vehicle based on Maranello’s first hybrid, the LaFerrari, with the K in the car’s name is referring to the kinetic energy recovery system (KERS) which is used to maximise performance. The FXX-K will not be used in competition and was developed to be uncompromising. The FXX K produces a total power of 1,050 PS (1,036 hp) and over 900 Nm (664 lb/ft), of which 860 PS (848 hp) are delivered by the V12 ICE and 190 PS (187 hp) by the electric motor. The V12 engine has been tuned for track use as well as the HY-KERS system. The FXX-K has extremely effective downforce generation and the result is a downforces of 540 kg (1,190 lb) at 200 km/h (124 mph). The car has a dry weight of 1,165 kg (2,568 lb). It includes four driving modes: Qualify (maximum performance on short distance), Long Run (for long distance driving), Fast Charge (for faster recharging of the battery) and Manual Boost, that uses all the power of the engine and batteries for maximum torque, cornering and speed. It has F1-based technology, including the E-Diff electronic differential, F1-Trac traction control and racing ABS brakes, all controlled from the centre console (Manettino). Like the preceding FXX and 599XX, the FXX K is a part of Ferrari’s Client Test Driver program, that allows owners of XX cars to drive in special tracks, collecting data for use in future Ferrari road and race cars. The front of the car has a large splitter and twin-profile spoiler, the headlights are very small for improving aerodynamics. In the rear, the tail is higher and includes a mobile spoiler with a tailfin and a small wing in the end of each fin to maximise the downforce. The car was launched at the Yas Marina circuit and “production” began in 2015.
Final car in this hall was a 275 GTB. The 275 was a series of two-seat front-engined V12-powered models produced in GT, roadster, and spyder form by Ferrari between 1964 and 1968. The first Ferrari to be equipped with a transaxle, the 275 was powered by a 3286 cc Colombo 60° V12 engine that produced 280-300 hp. Pininfarina designed the GT and roadster bodies, Scaglietti the rare NART Spyder, among the most valuable of all Ferraris made. The standard 275 GTB coupe came first. It was produced by Scaglietti and was available with 3 or 6 Weber twin-choke carburettors. It was more of a pure sports car than the GT name suggested. Some cars were built with an aluminium body instead of the standard steel body. A Series Two version with a longer nose appeared in 1965. The 275 GTB/4 debuted in 1966. A much updated 275 GTB, it generated 300 bhp from a substantially reworked 3286 cc Colombo V12 engine, still with two valves per cylinder but now with a four-cam engine and six carburettors as standard. In a departure from previous Ferrari designs, the valve angle was reduced three degrees to 54° for a more-compact head. The dual camshafts also allowed the valves to be aligned perpendicular to the camshaft instead of offset as in SOHC engines. It was a dry-sump design with a huge 17 qt (16 litre) capacity. The transaxle was also redesigned. A torque tube connected the engine and transmission, rather than allowing them to float free on the body as before. This improved handling, noise, and vibration. Porsche synchronizers were also fitted for improved shifting and reliability. The 275 GTB/4 could hit 268 km/h (166.5 mph). With new bodywork, it was the first Ferrari to not be offered with wire wheels. A total of 280 were produced through to 1968 when it was replaced by the 365 GTB/4 Daytona.
Final part of the display was that celebrating some Ferrari’s race cars. In the ante room there were a number of recent F1 cars on show to look at before entering the F1 Gallery, With a vast number of trophies on one side of this circular room, the other side contains a spectacular display of a race cars arranged in a semi-circle, parked on an incline, nose towards the ground. The setting has not changed over the years, but Ferrari regularly vary the cars that are on show here and on this occasion there was quite a different collection from those which had been here in 2016.
Oldest of the cars this time was this 1951 500 F2, which was powered by a 2 litre 4 cylinder engine which put out 185 bhp at 7500rpm. This was Ferrari’s first F1 title-winner in 1952 and it won again in 1953 with Alberto Ascari behind the wheel for six of its seven GP wins (Piero Taruffi won the other, for a clean sweep of all seven races). The engine was designed in one day.
This is a 1955 Ferrari D50, and yes, I thought that this was a Lancia, too. Indeed, that is the origin of this car with its 2.5-litre V-8 which generated 365 bhp @ 8,000 rpm. It does indeed use many borrowed spare parts from the retired Lancia racing effort, Ferrari engineer Vittorio Jano created a front-mounted V-8 engine, diagonally mounted with external tanks acting as wheel fairings for aerodynamics. Although it was stable with a full tank, it was a beast as the tank emptied—requiring the skills of Juan Manuel Fangio to pilot it to the championship.
The 1963 Ferrari 156 F1-63 had a 1.5-litre V-6 and delivered 205 hp @ 10,500 rpm. This car marked the first appearances of Bosch direct injection and magnesium/zirconium alloy wheels. The 156 rode on a tubular-steel trellis chassis. Piloted by motorcycle champion John Surtees, this was the precursor to the 158 that won the F1 championship with Surtees.
For 1988, the F1-87 car was updated to conform to the new regulations and renamed the F1/87/88C. The car also featured new front and rear wings and a slightly lower engine cover due to the reduction in the fuel tank limit from 195 to 150 litres. The drivers Michele Alboreto and Gerhard Berger finished third and fifth in the driver’s championship with Ferrari finishing second to McLaren in the Constructors Championship. The F1/87/88C scored one pole position at the British Grand Prix at Silverstone and one victory at the Italian Grand Prix in Monza.
Move forward another 5 years and we have the 1990 Ferrari F1-90, complete with its 3.5-litre V-12 developing 680 hp @ 12,750 rpm. Showcasing the evolution of Ferrari’s semi-automatic gearbox, this car used rockers behind the wheel instead of a gearshift lever. Using a dynamic air intake and lightened rotating parts allowed the engine to rev higher, but at the cost of increased fuel consumption. Again, it was a second-place finisher in the championship, despite five wins from Alain Prost as he chased the McLaren-Honda of Ayrton Senna.
The Ferrari F2003-GA was a highly successful car used by Scuderia Ferrari in the 2003 Formula One World Championship. The chassis was designed by Rory Byrne, Aldo Costa and Nikolas Tombazis with Ross Brawn playing a vital role in leading the production of the car as the team’s Technical Director and Paolo Martinelli leading the engine design. Its development was based on the previous Ferrari F2002, but featured new bulbous sidepods and a lengthened wheelbase to aid aerodynamics. The engine and gearbox were developed versions of the previous model. The car was designated “GA” as a mark of respect to Gianni Agnelli, the recently deceased head of Fiat. The car was introduced just before mid season in 2003, as the F2002 was seen as good enough to be competitive whilst the F2003-GA was developed further. The car was fast and competitive as it won 3 out its first 4 races, but had a tendency to overuse its tyres, which led to several late race tyre problems in mid seasons, causing a slight drop in form during the unusually hot European summer. As a result, Williams and McLaren were able to mount a consistent challenge to Ferrari and push Michael Schumacher for the championship. After Bridgestone engineers discovered Michelin were using tyres which changed construction, causing the French tyre maker to provide remoulded tyres late in the season. Ferrari became competitive again as it won the final 3 races of the season, and were able to hold off both Williams and McLaren for the Constructors’ Championship, whilst Schumacher snatched his sixth Drivers’ title, breaking Juan Manuel Fangio’s record which had stood for 46 years. The car won seven races, five pole positions, and five fastest laps before being replaced with the dominant F2004 in 2004, a car which was almost identical to its predecessor. Schumacher’s fastest lap at the Red Bull Ring is still the lap record as of 2018.
Most recent model was this 2004 Ferrari F2004, which had a 3.0-litre V-10 putting out a thumping 865 hp @ 18,300 rpm. The winningest Ferrari ever, piloted by Michael Schumacher, had an engine that weighed just 200 pounds. Originally conceived as a qualifying car with frequent pit stops, the F2004 ran very hot and required a transmission with a titanium-fusion box surrounded by a carbon skin to protect it from the searing exhaust gases coming from the chimneys.
As ever, I really enjoyed my visit here. Although t was busy when I arrived, coach tours clearly do not linger as long as I do. and as the clock neared lunch time, it emptied out so I could finally get the photos you see here. Ferrari changes the displays in their museums quite frequently, so I can be sure that this is a place I will be returning when I next get the opportunity.
More details can be found from the museum’s own website: https://musei.ferrari.com/en/maranello