Galleria Ferrari – Maranello (I) – September 2020

With a history that extends over more than 70 years and a global fan base for both its road and race cars that is probably second to none, it is no surprise to learn that there are not one but two museums dedicated to Ferrari in the nearby towns of Maranello and Modena, both owned by the company. Bigger, longer established and still probably better known of the two is the one in Maranello itself, right opposite the factory. Known as the Galleria Ferrari, the museum has been open for around 30 years now and during that time it has undergone at least one extensive remodelling. The contents, however, are changed on a far more frequent basis, with new exhibitions and a different selection of cars from the extensive collection held by Ferrari meaning that were you to visit every year, you would generally see a completely set of displays from a previous visit. I last visited in 2017, so was well overdue a return, and when planning my weeks vacation in Italy for September 2020, was delighted to see that the Ferrari museums were indeed open, just with all the requisite Covid protections in place. Tickets had to be bought in advance, and for a set time as well as a specific day. I made my selection and looked forward to a day paying homage to this great marque. On arrival, little seemed to be that different, apart from the hand sanitizer placed at the entrance and the fact that the museum seemed far quieter than usual. Indeed it proved to be, with only a handful of people who I saw on my visit, which is not usually the case when coachloads all descend on the place. There was a carefully routed one-way system which took you around the building, in a slightly different way to normal, including at one point the need to go outside and re-enter through a different door, but other than that , this was a museum visit much like any other year, and with the 2020 displays to enjoy. Here is what I saw.

THE MAKING OF A FERRARI

First of the displays showed some of what goes into the construction of the body of a Ferrari, with a couple of pairs of cars, one complete and one the “body in white” as well as numerous photos on the walls of the gallery area.

Older of the pairing was a 250LM. At the November 1963 Paris Auto Show, Ferrari introduced the 250 LM (Le Mans). It was developed as a coupé version of the 250 P and was ostensibly a new production car intended to meet FIA homologation requirements for the Group 3 GT class. The intention was for the 250 LM to replace the 250 GTO as Ferrari’s premier GT-class racer. However, in April 1964 the FIA refused to homologate the model, as Ferrari had built considerably fewer than the required 100 units. The 250 LM thus had to run in the prototype class until it was homologated as a Group 4 Sports Car for the 1966 season. 32 total 250 LM chassis were built from 1963 to 1965, with all but the first chassis (s/n 5149, the Paris Auto Show car with a 250 P engine) powered by 3.3-litre 320 bhp engines as used in the 275 P. According to Ferrari naming convention, the 3.3 litre cars should have been designated “275 LM”, however Enzo Ferrari insisted that the name remain 250 LM in order to facilitate the homologation process. The 250 LM shared fully independent double wishbone suspension, rack and pinion steering, four wheel disc brakes and 5-speed transaxle with the 250 P, however the tubular space frame chassis was significantly strengthened with the roof structure, additional cross-bracing and heavier gauge tubing. The interior was trimmed out as a nod to the ostensible production status of the car, but ultimately it was little different from a prototype racer. The 250 LM was successfully raced around the world by both factory-supported and privateer racers. Unlike the 250/275/330 P cars, new 250 LMs were sold to private customers and campaigned by privateer teams. From 1964 through 1967, 250 LMs were raced by Scuderia Ferrari, NART, Maranello Concessionaires, Ecurie Filipinetti, Ecurie Francorchamps and others, even when this model was no longer competitive with the latest factory prototypes. Notably, a 250 LM (chassis 5893) entered by the North American Racing Team won the 1965 24 Hours of Le Mans driven by Jochen Rindt and Masten Gregory. This remains Ferrari’s last overall victory in the endurance classic. This car is now owned by the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Museum and was displayed at the 2004 Pebble Beach Concours d’Elegance and the 2013 Amelia Island Concours d’Elegance. The 250 LM is highly sought-after by serious auto collectors and individual cars are often featured at auctions, car shows and historic racing events. 250 LMs typically sell for more than $10 million USD and auction records for this model have been repeatedly broken in the past 10 years.

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The second car represented was from the current range, the 812 Superfast, the 2-seater sports GT which took the place of the F12 Berlinetta at the top of the “regular” range in 2018, and the most powerful car in Ferrari’s current family of road cars.

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Il COMMENDATORE’s OFFICE

One display which does not change from year to year is this one, the recreation of Enzo’s office, with a number of artefacts that really bring it to life.

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THE HYPERCARS

The next large gallery was dedicated to the series of “hypercar” Ferrrari, the very special and most potent ones, at the pinnacle of the range that have been produced periodically. As well as the real, full-sized cars there were some scale models presented at one side of the room. Every one of these was nice, combined they made for a very impressive assembly in their own right.

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The F40 of 1987 was the successor to the 288 GTO. It was designed to celebrate Ferrari’s 40th anniversary and was the last Ferrari automobile personally approved by Enzo Ferrari. At the time it was Ferrari’s fastest, most powerful, and most expensive car for sale. As soon as the 288 GTO was launched, Ferrari started the development of an evolution model, intended to compete against the Porsche 959 in FIA Group B. However, when the FIA brought an end to the Group B category for the 1986 season, Enzo Ferrari was left with five 288 GTO Evoluzione development cars, and no series in which to campaign them. Enzo’s desire to leave a legacy in his final supercar allowed the Evoluzione program to be further developed to produce a car exclusively for road use. In response to the quite simple, but very expensive car with relatively little out of the ordinary being called a “cynical money-making exercise” aimed at speculators, a figure from the Ferrari marketing department was quoted as saying “We wanted it to be very fast, sporting in the extreme and Spartan,” “Customers had been saying our cars were becoming too plush and comfortable.” “The F40 is for the most enthusiastic of our owners who want nothing but sheer performance. It isn’t a laboratory for the future, as the 959 is. It is not Star Wars. And it wasn’t created because Porsche built the 959. It would have happened anyway.” Power came from an enlarged, 2936 cc version of the GTO’s twin IHI turbocharged V8 developing 478 bhp. The F40 did without a catalytic converter until 1990 when US regulations made them a requirement for emissions control reasons. The flanking exhaust pipes guide exhaust gases from each bank of cylinders while the central pipe guides gases released from the wastegate of the turbochargers. Engines with catalytic converters bear F120D code. The suspension was similar to the GTO’s double wishbone setup, though many parts were upgraded and settings were changed; the unusually low ground clearance prompted Ferrari to include the ability to raise the vehicle’s ground clearance when necessary. The body was an entirely new design by Pininfarina featuring panels made of Kevlar, carbon fibre, and aluminium for strength and low weight, and intense aerodynamic testing was employed. Weight was further minimised through the use of a plastic windscreen and windows. The cars did have air conditioning, but had no sound system, door handles, glove box, leather trim, carpets, or door panels. The first 50 cars produced had sliding Lexan windows, while later cars were fitted with wind down windows. The F40 was designed with aerodynamics in mind. For speed the car relied more on its shape than its power. Frontal area was reduced, and airflow greatly smoothed, but stability rather than terminal velocity was a primary concern. So too was cooling as the forced induction engine generated a great deal of heat. In consequence, the car was somewhat like an open-wheel racing car with a body. It had a partial undertray to smooth airflow beneath the radiator, front section, and the cabin, and a second one with diffusers behind the motor, but the engine bay was not sealed. Nonetheless, the F40 had an impressively low Cd of 0.34 with lift controlled by its spoilers and wing. The factory never intended to race the F40, but the car saw competition as early as 1989 when it debuted in the Laguna Seca Raceway round of the IMSA, appearing in the GTO category, with a LM evolution model driven by Jean Alesi, finishing third to the two faster space-framed four wheel drive Audi 90 and beating a host of other factory backed spaceframe specials that dominated the races. Despite lack of factory backing, the car would soon have another successful season there under a host of guest drivers such as Jean-Pierre Jabouille, Jacques Laffite and Hurley Haywood taking a total of three second places and one third. It would later be a popular choice by privateers to compete in numerous domestic GT series. Although the original plan was to build just 400 cars, such was the demand that in the end, 1311 were built over a 4 year period.

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Fans who wanted to see what Ferrari would do next did not have too long to wait, as the next hypercar, the F50 appeared 4 years later, in 1995. This could almost be seen as a Formula 1 car for the road, as this mid-engined two seat roadster with a removable hardtop had a 4.7 litre naturally aspirated 60-valve V12 engine that was developed from the 3.5 litre V12 used in the 1990 Ferrari 641 Formula One car. Only 349 cars were made, of which 301 were red. Just 4 of them were black, making it, along with silver the least produced colour of the limited palate offered. The last F50 was produced in July 1997. These days this is the rarest of the quintet.

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There was a bigger gap before the next car came along. Widely rumoured to be called the F60, Ferrari surprised everyone at its 2002 unveiling by giving it the name Enzo. This car was built using even more Formula One technology, such as a carbon-fibre body, F1-style electrohydraulic shift transmission, and carbon fibre-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) ceramic composite disc brakes. Also used were technologies not allowed in F1 such as active aerodynamics and traction control. After a downforce of 7600 N (1700 lbf) is reached at 300 km/h (186 mph) the rear wing is actuated by computer to maintain that downforce. The Enzo’s F140 B V12 engine was the first of a new generation for Ferrari. It was based on the design of the V8 found in Maserati’s Quattroporte, using the same basic design and 104 mm (4.1 in) bore spacing. The Enzo formed the basis for a whole array of other very special cars, including the FXX and FXX Evoluzione cars and the Maserati MC12 and MC12 Evoluzione as well as the Ferrari P4/5 and the Millechilli. Originally, 349 of these were going to be produced, but Ferrari decided to add another 50 to the total, meaning 400 in total were produced up until 2004.

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If you wanted the most recent in the series, the 2013 LaFerrari, it was almost a pre-requisite that you had bought one of all the others, and probably a few other Ferraris as well. Launched at the 2013 Geneva Show, along with the Porsche 918 Spyder and McLaren P1, the LaFerrari has the distinction of being the first mild hybrid from Ferrari, which ensures that as well as providing the highest power output of any Ferrari, fuel consumption can be decreased by up to 40 percent. Owners may not care, but regulators certainly do! LaFerrari’s internal combustion engine is a mid-rear mounted Ferrari F140 65° V12 with a 6262 cc capacity producing 800 PS (789 bhp) @ 9000 rpm and 700 N·m (520 lbf·ft) of torque @ 6,750 rpm, supplemented by a 163 PS (161 bhp) KERS unit (called HY-KERS), which will provide short bursts of extra power. The KERS system adds extra power to the combustion engine’s output level for a total of 963 PS (950 bhp) and a combined torque of 900 Nm (664 lb/ft). Ferrari claims CO2 emissions of 330 g/km. It is connected to a 7-speed dual-clutch transmission and the car is rear-wheel drive. 499 units were built, each costing over $1million.

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These were all road cars. Ferrari has also, in recent times, produced some very limited numbers of cars that were purpose-designed for the track. Indeed, these have not been road-legal, and those lucky enough to afford them have found that Ferrari keeps custody of “their” car, making it available at the track of choice when required. The latest of these is the FXX K, of which just 40 units were made. The FXX K is based on the street-legal LaFerrari. It is a successor to the FXX and the 599XX. The “FXX K” is Ferrari’s research and development vehicle based on Maranello’s first hybrid, the LaFerrari, with the K in the car’s name is referring to the kinetic energy recovery system (KERS) which is used to maximise performance. The FXX-K will not be used in competition and was developed to be uncompromising. The FXX K produces a total power of 1,050 PS (1,036 hp) and over 900 Nm (664 lb/ft), of which 860 PS (848 hp) are delivered by the V12 ICE and 190 PS (187 hp) by the electric motor. The V12 engine has been tuned for track use as well as the HY-KERS system. The FXX-K has extremely effective downforce generation and the result is a downforces of 540 kg (1,190 lb) at 200 km/h (124 mph). The car has a dry weight of 1,165 kg (2,568 lb). It includes four driving modes: Qualify (maximum performance on short distance), Long Run (for long distance driving), Fast Charge (for faster recharging of the battery) and Manual Boost, that uses all the power of the engine and batteries for maximum torque, cornering and speed. It has F1-based technology, including the E-Diff electronic differential, F1-Trac traction control and racing ABS brakes, all controlled from the centre console (Manettino). Like the preceding FXX and 599XX, the FXX K is a part of Ferrari’s Client Test Driver program, that allows owners of XX cars to drive in special tracks, collecting data for use in future Ferrari road and race cars. The front of the car has a large splitter and twin-profile spoiler, the headlights are very small for improving aerodynamics. In the rear, the tail is higher and includes a mobile spoiler with a tailfin and a small wing in the end of each fin to maximise the downforce. The car was launched at the Yas Marina circuit and “production” began in 2015.

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PERSONALISING YOUR FERRARI

Few owners will specify their new Ferrari in absolutely standard spec, and even if they do, then they still need to choose such things as the colour of the paintwork and the upholstery. Ferrari produce lengthy lists of generally very pricey optional extras and most owners tick lots of boxes from what is available. But you can go further with a wide range of personaliation options called Tailor Made, where the limits are more or less down to your imagination and your bank balance. Illustrating the sort of choices that go up to make a new Ferrari was this display which included a 488 Pista to illustrate the point.

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If that is not exclusive enough, then you can always ask Ferrari to produce something utterly bespoke, a one-off and there have been a few such cars produced in recent times. This is the static display for one of these, the P80/C, a one-off track car based on the 488 GT3, which was displayed and demonstrated at the 2019 Goodwood Festival of Speed. The new supercar was developed at Ferrari’s styling centre to a brief set by a “connoisseur of the Ferrari world” who wanted a modern sports prototype inspired by the likes of the 1966 Dino 206 S and 330 P3/P4. Those machines started as track cars but spawned roadgoing variants. The P80/C is based on the 488 GT3 racing car, chosen over the 488 GTB road car because the extra 50mm of wheelbase offered more “creative freedom”. It has been extensively reworked with a pure performance focus. The aerodynamics are based on the 488 GT3’s, but without the need to meet sporting regulations, there’s a new front splitter and a reworked rear diffuser. Ferrari claims the car is 5% more efficient, which is required to make use of the unrestricted engine. There’s also extensive use of underbody aerodynamics, with rear bodywork styled after the T-wings that have been seen in Formula 1 in recent years. The P80/C’s bodywork is made entirely from carbonfibre. Because the P80/C is a track-only car, Ferrari has been able to greatly reduce the size of its headlights, while its rear features a concave rear windscreen and aluminium louvres on the engine cover. The car has been designed for a carbonfibre wing and 18in wheels to be fitted when in ‘racing set-up’. It can be converted to an ‘exhibition package’, with the aerodynamic appendages removed and 21in wheels fitted. Ferrari says the car is sculpted to create a cab forward-effect with a more aggressive stance, including a wrap-around windscreen. There are also flying buttresses that converge near the roof line, paying homage to both the Dino and 250 LM. The car’s bodywork is widest over the front axle, then narrows sharply before broadening again near the rear. The interior is similar to the 488 GT3 donor car’s, including an integrated roll cage. Elements of the dashboard have been redesigned and there are new carbonfibre shell door panels. Performance figures for the car haven’t been given, but it’s likely to use an unrestricted version of the 3.9-litre turbocharged V8 in the 488 GT3. In the 488 GTB, that unit produces 661bhp. Ferrari says work on the P80/C began in 2015, giving it the longest development time of any one-off Ferrari produced to date. The name was chosen by the anonymous collector who commissioned it. Ferrari hasn’t revealed any details on its cost. The standard 488 GT3 costs around £455,000. This one would have cost an awful lot more than that.

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FERRARI at LE MANS

Although Ferrari is best known these days for its successes in Formula 1, the marque has entered plenty of other formulae over the year and this display reminded us of the firm’s participation in that most famous of races the le Mans 24 hours.

This is 275P. The Ferrari P was a series of Italian sports prototype racing cars produced by Ferrari during the 1960s and early 1970s. Although Enzo Ferrari resisted the move even with Cooper dominating F1, Ferrari began producing mid-engined racing cars in the early 1960s with the Dino-V6-engine Formula One Ferrari 246 P and the sport prototype SP-series. The V12 sports car racers followed in 1963. Although these cars shared their numerical designations (based on engine displacement) with road models, they were almost entirely different. The first Ferrari mid-engine road car did not arrive until the 1967 Dino 206 GT, and it was 1971 before a Ferrari 12-cylinder engine was placed behind a road-going driver in the 365 GT4 BB. For the 1964 season, Ferrari developed the 275 P and 330 P. These were improved versions of the 250 P with larger displacement engines and slightly modified bodywork. The tubular space-frame chassis and most other components remained the same as in the 250 P. The 275 P used a bored-out 3.3L version of the 250 Testa Rossa-type engine originally utilized by the 250 P. The 330 P used a different design, a 4.0L Colombo-designed V12 based on engines used in the 400 Superamerica road cars. The 330 P developed more power than the 275 P (370 bhp vs 320 bhp) but weighed more (785 kg vs 755 kg). Some drivers preferred the extra power of the 330 P while others appreciated the more nimble feel of the 275 P and the two models were raced concurrently. Production of these types included three brand new chassis and conversions of all four 250 P chassis. It is not possible to clearly determine the number of chassis produced with each engine type as 275 and 330 engines were swapped as needed between cars. 275 P and 330 P cars were actively and successfully raced by Scuderia Ferrari, NART and Maranello Concessionaires during 1964 and 1965 seasons. The most notable result was a 1-2-3 sweep at the 1964 24 Hours of Le Mans. The Scuderia Ferrari-run 275 P driven by Guichet and Vaccarella took first, followed by a Maranello Concessionaires 330 P (Hill/Bonnier) in second and a Scuderia Ferrari 330 P (Bandini/Surtees) in third.

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Older of the pair here was a 166MM Touring Barchetta, a model similar to the one in which Lord Selsdon and Luigi Chinetti triumphed on 26 June 1949, on the occasion of Ferrari’s debut at Le Mans. . An evolution of the original Colombo V12-powered 125S Racer, the Ferrari 166 S was a sports racing car built between 1948 and 1953. It was adapted into a sports car for the street in the form of the 166 Inter. The Ferrari 166 S was a sports racing car built by Ferrari between 1948 and 1953, an evolution of its Colombo V12-powered 125 S racer. It was adapted into a sports car for the street in the form of the 166 Inter. Only 12 Ferrari 166 S were produced, nine of them with cycle-fenders as the Spyder Corsa. It was soon followed by the updated and highly successful Ferrari 166 MM (Mille Miglia), of which 47 were made from 1948 to 1953. The 166 shared its Aurelio Lampredi-designed tube frame and double wishbone/live axle suspension with the 125. Like the 125, the wheelbase was 2420 mm long. Nine 166 Spyder Corsas and three 166 Sports were built. The first two 166 S models were coachbuilt by Carrozzeria Allemano and the last one by Carlo Anderloni at Carrozzeria Touring. Majority of the 166 MM cars were bodied at Touring in a barchetta form. The 166 shared its Aurelio Lampredi-designed tube frame and double wishbone/live axle suspension with the 125. Like the 125, the wheelbase was 2420 mm long. Nine 166 Spyder Corsas and three 166 Sports were built. The 1.5 litre Gioacchino Colombo-designed V12 engine of the 125 was changed, however, with single overhead camshafts specified and a larger 1995 cc displacement. This was achieved with both a bore and stroke increase, to 60 by 58.8 mm respectively. Output was 110 PS at 5,600 rpm to 130 PS at 6,500 rpm with three carburettors, giving top speed of 170–215 km/h (106–134 mph). For the 166 MM power output rose to 140 PS at 6,600 rpm and top speed to 220 km/h (137 mph). The Ferrari 166 S won Targa Florio with Clemente Biondetti and Igor Troubetzkoy in 1948. In 1949, Biondetti also won in the 166 SC with Benedetti as co-driver. The 166 S won 1948 Mille Miglia, also driven by Bioffers. Its early victories in the Targa Florio and Mille Miglia and others in international competition made the manufacturer a serious competitor in the racing industry. Both were later replaced by the 2.3 litre 195 S.

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RACE CAR GALLERY

One of the most striking displays in the museum is the gallery for Formula 1 and other race cars. Behind you as you walk is a wall that is lined with trophies won by the Ferrari in a long and highly successful career on the track, and facing you is a raised and sloping semi-circular plinth on which a number of cars are displayed, all pointing down so you get a really good view of them. The layout has been the same for many years now, but the cars that are displayed do change as part of the annual museum update. On this occasion the emphasis was on the more recent Formula 1 championship-winning cars.

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This is the F2007, with which Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro competed during the 2007 Formula One season, it being the fifty-third single-seater car which the team have built to use in Formula One. The chassis was designed by Aldo Costa, Nikolas Tombazis and John Iley with Mario Almondo playing a vital role in leading the production of the car as the team’s director of operations and Gilles Simon leading the engine design. The car is best known for providing Kimi Räikkönen with his first World Championship title and the team with its first Constructor’s title since Michael Schumacher helped them win both in the 2004 Formula One season and the most recent World Drivers’ Championship win for the team as of the end of the 2019 Formula One season. The car was unveiled to the public on January 14, 2007 at Ferrari’s Fiorano test track in Maranello.

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The 2004 Ferrari F2004 had a 3.0-litre V-10 putting out a thumping 865 hp @ 18,300 rpm. The winning-est Ferrari ever, piloted by Michael Schumacher, had an engine that weighed just 200 pounds. Originally conceived as a qualifying car with frequent pit stops, the F2004 ran very hot and required a transmission with a titanium-fusion box surrounded by a carbon skin to protect it from the searing exhaust gases coming from the chimneys.

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The Ferrari F2003-GA was a highly successful car used by Scuderia Ferrari in the 2003 Formula One World Championship. The chassis was designed by Rory Byrne, Aldo Costa and Nikolas Tombazis with Ross Brawn playing a vital role in leading the production of the car as the team’s Technical Director and Paolo Martinelli leading the engine design. Its development was based on the previous Ferrari F2002, but featured new bulbous sidepods and a lengthened wheelbase to aid aerodynamics. The engine and gearbox were developed versions of the previous model. The car was designated “GA” as a mark of respect to Gianni Agnelli, the recently deceased head of Fiat. The car was introduced just before mid season in 2003, as the F2002 was seen as good enough to be competitive whilst the F2003-GA was developed further. The car was fast and competitive as it won 3 out its first 4 races, but had a tendency to overuse its tyres, which led to several late race tyre problems in mid seasons, causing a slight drop in form during the unusually hot European summer. As a result, Williams and McLaren were able to mount a consistent challenge to Ferrari and push Michael Schumacher for the championship. After Bridgestone engineers discovered Michelin were using tyres which changed construction, causing the French tyre maker to provide remoulded tyres late in the season. Ferrari became competitive again as it won the final 3 races of the season, and were able to hold off both Williams and McLaren for the Constructors’ Championship, whilst Schumacher snatched his sixth Drivers’ title, breaking Juan Manuel Fangio’s record which had stood for 46 years. The car won seven races, five pole positions, and five fastest laps before being replaced with the dominant F2004 in 2004, a car which was almost identical to its predecessor. Schumacher’s fastest lap at the Red Bull Ring is still the lap record as of 2018.

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The Ferrari F2002 was one of the most successful Formula One car designs of all time that the Ferrari team competed with for the 2002 Formula One season. The chassis was designed by Rory Byrne, Aldo Costa and Nikolas Tombazis with Ross Brawn playing a vital role in leading the production of the car as the team’s Technical Director and Paolo Martinelli leading the engine design. It won fifteen Grands Prix, from a total of nineteen races in 2002 and 2003. The car was much lighter than its predecessor, the F2001. Powered by a 3.0-litre V10 engine which produced 835 horsepower (623 kW) @ 17,800 rpm, that had a very low centre of gravity, and was capable of revving to a maximum of 18,500 rpm, the F2002 had excellent handling. The new 051 engine was not the strongest engine of 2002, but it was lighter, more compact, very fuel-efficient, and very driveable. An innovative and very small clutchless gearbox allowing ultra-quick changes had been designed, and because the unit was so small, the rear end aerodynamics were extremely tightly packaged. Bridgestone developed special tyres, suited specifically for the car. Aerodynamically, the Ferrari was well ahead of the contemporary Williams-BMW but perhaps a little down on power, and on a par with, or slightly ahead of the 2002 season’s McLaren car. Williams in trying to solve the 2001 car’s reliability problems meant that they played it safe for 2002, while McLaren’s deficiency was due to the decision to stick with Michelin tyres as well as Mercedes struggling to design a beryllium-less engine for 2002. Using the Pomeroy Index system, Motor Sport magazine recently determined that the F2002 is the fastest Formula One car of all time. However, the Ferrari F2004 achieved better qualifying lap times at 12 of the courses which were raced by both cars (only the 2002 French Grand Prix, 2002 Belgian Grand Prix and 2002 Japanese Grand Prix was faster than the 2004 races, with two of these being due to rain). In terms of single lap performance while not as dominant as the McLaren MP4/4 in 1988 nor the Williams FW14B in 1992, both cars which each scored 15 poles in their respective season, the Ferrari F2002 scored 10 poles but was more reliable as well as relatively faster on Sundays than the MP4/4 and FW14B. The majority of the conceptual design work for the Ferrari F2002 was by Ferrari’s legendary South African chassis designer Rory Byrne and the engine design by Ferrari’s Paolo Martinelli. The project was overseen by the team’s technical director Ross Brawn. A vast army of other team personnel oversaw the running of the team and the project. Prior to the introduction bof the F2002, Ferrari had used a revised version of their championship-winning Ferrari F2001 for the first few races of 2002. The F2002 was not only a development of the championship-winning Ferrari F2001, but a completely revolutionary model involving many technologies not seen previously. Since the late 1990s, Ferrari had been using the same basic concept and design of gearbox and although this had been used to win drivers and constructors titles from 1999 onwards the technical team pushed ahead with a new version instead. The new replacement gearbox casing was made of ultra-lightweight and higher strength titanium, thus reducing its weight by as much as 15% and lowering the car’s centre of gravity. The new compact design allowed for great advancement in the bodywork and increasing the car’s aerodynamic efficiency at the rear. However such was the extent of the gearbox casing redesign that the aerodynamic work was left behind schedule and initially did not represent the same performance gains as the mechanical engineering. Thus Ferrari continued its design for another two months and only first used the F2002 at the third round of the 2002 season has been using the previous year’s F2001 chassis, albeit with many alterations and the inclusion of the Ferrari 051 2002 engine. Other advancements on the car include the clutchless direct-shift technology within the gearbox, a new fluid traction control system to replace the previous 2001 traction control system and upright aerodynamically shaped periscopic exhaust outlets at the rear. The latter technology was incorporated both to use the hot exhaust gases for aerodynamic effect and to raise these gases higher and out the way of the rear suspension. On the previous occasions, Ferrari’s non-chimneyed top exiting exhaust outlets had caused the rear suspension and other elements at the rear of the car to overheat or even melt when minor cracks occurred. At its first race in Brazil, the F2002 was victorious, being driven by Michael Schumacher and continuing Ferrari’s trend since 1999 for its cars to win on their debut. Michael Schumacher clinched second on the grid and after a first lap altercation with Juan Pablo Montoya, took a somewhat easy win from his brother Ralf’s Williams. There was some controversy surrounding tyre allocation because the team only had one F2002 chassis at the race. Therefore, Schumacher’s spare car was an F2001 chassis, and because the two chassis used different wheel rim designs each required separate wheels and tyres. It was thus argued that Schumacher had in-effect twice the allocation of tyres as any other driver. The controversy was managed by Ferrari agreeing to aggregate their tyre usage between the two cars, ensuring that Schumacher used the same total number of tyres as all the other drivers. What followed was a season of domination, the likes of which had not been seen since McLaren’s 1988 season.

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The Ferrari F2001 was a highly successful Formula One car that the Ferrari team competed with for the 2001 Formula One season. The chassis was designed by Rory Byrne, Aldo Costa and Nikolas Tombazis with Ross Brawn playing a vital role in leading the production of the car as the teams Technical Director and Paolo Martinelli leading the engine design. A revised version known as the F2001B was used in the first two races of 2002 before being replaced by the F2002. The F2001 was designed around new regulation changes which mandated a higher-mounted front wing assembly to reduce downforce. This resulted in a distinctive ‘droopsnoot’ nose section and spoon-shaped front wing. The season also saw the re-introduction of traction and launch control systems, therefore the car and its suspension were designed with this in mind. Being somewhat of a departure over previous Brawn/Byrne Ferrari designs, the car was based more on McLaren’s design thinking. A test with the 2000 car-which featured a high nose-that was adapted to the new regulations made that design impractical, so a low nose was adopted instead. However, the car did feature Ferrari trademarks, such as the periscope exhausts pioneered by the team in 1998 and the small bargeboards which were a feature of its predecessors. The F2001 used the same basic gearbox and internal layout as its predecessors, however the aerodynamic efficiency and tyre wear were improved considerably over the F300 (1998), F399 (1999) and F1-2000 (2000). Setting up the car proved easier, and it was faster than the rival McLaren MP4-16, but the Williams FW23—although aerodynamically inferior—was fitted with the massively powerful BMW engine, which was more than a match for the Ferrari power unit. The Ferrari was notably more reliable than either of its rivals however. The season would turn out to be easy for Michael Schumacher, who took nine victories and his fourth world championship—scoring a then-record 123 points. He also surpassed Alain Prost’s record for most Grand Prix wins during the year. He failed to finish only twice, but his teammate Rubens Barrichello had the lion’s share of bad luck and looked poised to take wins himself, being hindered only by unreliability. All the while, Ferrari won its third straight Constructors’ Championship. The car was updated before the season finale in Japan, ostensibly to test 2002 components in race conditions. The updated F2001 was still competitive at the beginning of the 2002 season and Schumacher took the car’s final win at the Australian Grand Prix before it was replaced by the all-conquering F2002 from the third race (only for Schumacher) and fourth race onwards (for Barrichello). Overall, the F2001 took ten wins, thirteen pole positions, three fastest laps and 197 points throughout its lifespan.

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The Ferrari F1-2000 was a Formula One racing car that the Ferrari team competed with for the 2000 Formula One season. The chassis was designed by Rory Byrne, Aldo Costa and Nikolas Tombazis with Ross Brawn playing a vital role in leading the production of the car as the team’s Technical Director and Paolo Martinelli leading the engine design. The car was a direct development of the F300 and F399 from the previous two seasons, using the same basic gearbox and a new engine with a wider V-angle (90 degrees vs. 75 degrees in the 048 engine); this new wider angle improved and lowered the centre of gravity of the car. It also featured improved aerodynamics over the F399 most noticeably a flatter underside of the nose area, which put it on par with that year’s McLaren MP4/15. The new car had improved cooling over its predecessors and much smaller, more rounded sidepods to improve airflow. Detail changes had been made to the weight distribution to improve handling and make the car as light as possible. Despite the improvements, the F1-2000 used its tyres harder than the McLaren, which was still marginally faster overall but was less reliable than its Italian rival. The car underwent constant development. The angled front wing was replaced with a more conventional flat plane wing at the United States Grand Prix and larger bargeboards were fitted in time for the French Grand Prix. Despite a mid season slump which saw three consecutive retirements, Michael Schumacher drove the F1-2000 to his third World Drivers’ Title and Ferrari’s first after a 21 year title drought. It also defended Ferrari’s constructors’ crown, and signified the start of the team’s dominance throughout the first half of the decade.

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The Ferrari F399 was the car that the Ferrari team competed with for the 1999 Formula One World Championship. The chassis was designed by Rory Byrne, Aldo Costa, Marco Fainello and Nikolas Tombazis with Ross Brawn playing a vital role in leading the production of the car as the team’s Technical Director and Paolo Martinelli leading the engine design. The F399 was almost identical to the previous season’s F300, with small detail changes (new front wing, wheel tethers, waisted sidepods, an improved exhaust system and the use of Bridgestone tyres with four grooves instead of three). It was initially driven by Michael Schumacher and Eddie Irvine, with Mika Salo substituting for Schumacher when he broke his leg at Silverstone. Although the team’s quest to win their first drivers’ title since 1979 was halted by Schumacher’s injury and the faster speed of the McLaren MP4/14, they did manage to clinch their first constructors’ title since 1983.

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This is the 312 T4, as driven by the late Gilles Villeneuve. The T4 was an evolution of the T3, which had been Ferrari’s car for the 1978 season. By 1979, a significant amount of progress was being made in aerodynamics and to challenge Lotus, Forghieri realised he had to follow their lead and design a ground effect car for the 1979 season. The 312T4, introduced at the 1979 South African Grand Prix was closely based on the 312T3. Its origins placed restrictions on the aerodynamic design since the T series had never been designed with ground effect in mind. The 312T4 monocoque was designed to be as narrow as possible, to take advantage of ground effects, but this was limited by the width of the flat 12 engine. The car was extremely reliable and it won 6 races in 1979, three each for Villeneuve and Scheckter. Other solid placings helped Ferrari win its fourth Constructors’ Championship in 5 seasons and Scheckter his only Drivers’ Championship. Scheckter was given the 312T4 car he drove to his championship after the new 312T5 was ready to be debuted in Argentina in 1980. He still owns it, and ran it at the 2010 Bahrain Grand Prix weekend to celebrate the 60th anniversary of Formula One along with every living Formula One world champion (except for Nelson Piquet and Kimi Räikkönen).

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Presented in front of these Formula 1 greats was another fabulous racing Ferrari, but of a very different kind, the latest 488 GTE. The Ferrari 488 GTE is a grand tourer racing car built by Ferrari’s in-house Competizioni GT unit, for competition in endurance racing. It is a replacement for the Ferrari 458 GT2 racing car, using the Ferrari 488 as a base. The car is built in accordance with the Automobile Club de l’Ouest/FIA LM GTE regulations introduced for the 2016 season, and it currently competes in the IMSA WeatherTech SportsCar Championship, FIA World Endurance Championship, and the European Le Mans Series. The car had its race debut at the 2016 24 Hours of Daytona, with the Scuderia Corsa and Risi Competizione teams. Following the announcement and launch of the Ferrari 488, it was subsequently confirmed by a Ferrari spokesperson that a racing version of the car would be unveiled soon. On 30 August 2015, spy photographs were published, showing a highly camouflaged car undergoing testing at the ACI Vallelunga Circuit, which showed major differences in the car compared to the outgoing 458 GT2, although the front bumper was noted to be largely similar to the outgoing car. The car was launched at the 2015 Finali Mondiali, at the Mugello Circuit, alongside its GT3 counterpart. At the launch, few details of the car were disseminated, with the engine carrying over from the 488 GTB being the main announcement. The car is known to be able to be converted between LM GTE, and Group GT3 specification, due to the relative similarity of both cars. On 13 November 2017, it was confirmed by the Ferrari Competizioni GT technical coordinator, Ferdinando Cannizzo, that both the 488 GTE and GT3 would be receiving Evo kits, aimed at improving reliability, as well as aero performance optimization. The 488 GTE Evo had its shakedown test, at the Ferrari’s Fiorano Circuit, in Maranello, Italy on 30 March 2018. Following a Balance of Performance wind tunnel test at the WindShear facility, the 488 GTE Evo had its front dive-planes removed. It was later suggested by Competizioni GT Technical Coordinator Ferdinando Cannizzo that the car could potentially remain in competition until 2021 with a second Evolution, instead of Ferrari developing a new car. The 488 GTE is the car with which Alessandro Pier Guidi, James Calado and Daniel Serra won the 2019 edition of the French marathon, seventy years after the first triumph of the 166 MM.

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SCUDERIA FERRARI

The cars featured in this part of the museum tell the story of a glorious career spanning over 90 years.Ferrari’s motorsport adventure in the decades separating the oldest and newest cars is told through unforgettable models that battled it out in gruelling races, won historic victories and sometimes endured painful defeats. All encapsulate Enzo Ferrari’s dream and the commitment, determination and thirst to innovate of a team whose history is inextricably linked with that of Formula 1 itself. 31 World titles of which 15 were Drivers’ and 16 Constructors’ – an unmatched record that the Maranello team defends each year and honours with the very same passion as it did in its earliest days. Those who know the history of the Ferrari company will be aware that before there were Ferrari cars there was a racing team run by Enzo Ferrari, bearing his name, and the cars that he prepared were Alfa Romeo models. Indeed, Enzo’s respect for Alfa endured for the rest of his life. So it seemed fitting that there would be a a glorious Alfa Romeo model in this special display.

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Alfa Romeo 8C2300 Spider: In 1924, Vittorio Jano created his first straight-eight-cylinder engine for Alfa Romeo, the 1987 cc P2, with common crankcase and four plated-steel two-cylinder blocks, which won the first World Championship ever in 1925. Although it was a straight-8, the 8C designation was not used. The 8C engine, first entered at the 1931 Mille Miglia road race through Italy,[2] had a common crankcase, now with two alloy four-cylinder blocks, which also incorporated the heads. The bore and stroke (and hence rods, pistons and the like), were the same as the 6C 1750 (bore: 65 mm, stroke: 88 mm 2,336 cc). There was no separate head, and no head gasket to fail, but this made valve maintenance more difficult. A central gear tower drove the overhead camshafts, superchargers and ancillaries. As far as production cars are concerned, the 8C engine powered two models, the 8C 2300 (1931–1935) and the even more rare and expensive 8C 2900 (1936–1941), bore increased to 68 mm and stroke to 100 mm (2,905 cc). At the same time, since racing cars were no longer required to carry a mechanic, Alfa Romeo built the first single seater race car. As a first attempt, the 1931 Monoposto Tipo A used a pair of 6-cylinder engines fitted side by side in the chassis. As the resulting car was too heavy and complex, Jano designed a more suitable and successful racer called Monoposto Tipo B (aka P3) for the 1932 Grand Prix season. The Tipo B proved itself the winning car of its era, winning straight from its first outing at the 1932 Italian Grand Prix, and was powered with an enlarged version of the 8C engine now at 2,665 cc, fed through a pair of superchargers instead of a single one. Initially, Alfa Romeo announced that the 8C was not to be sold to private owners, but by autumn 1931 Alfa sold it as a rolling chassis in Lungo (long) or Corto (short) form with prices starting at over £1000. The chassis were fitted with bodies from a selection of Italian coach-builders (Carrozzeria) such as Zagato, Carrozzeria Touring, Carrozzeria Castagna, Carrozzeria Pinin Farina ( later Pininfarina ) and Brianza, even though Alfa Romeo did make bodies. Some chassis were clothed by coach-builders such as Graber, Worblaufen and Tuscher of Switzerland and Figoni of France. Alfa Romeo also had a practice of rebodying cars for clients, and some racing vehicles were sold rebodied as road vehicles. Some of the famous first owners include Baroness Maud Thyssen of the Thyssen family, the owner of the aircraft and now scooter company Piaggio Andrea Piaggio, Raymond Sommer, and Tazio Nuvolari. The first model was the 1931 ‘8C 2300’, a reference to the car’s 2.3 litre (2336 cc) engine, initially designed as a racing car, but actually produced in 188 units also for road use. While the racing version of the 8C 2300 Spider, driven by Tazio Nuvolari won the 1931 and 1932 Targa Florio race in Sicily, the 1931 Italian Grand Prix victory at Monza gave the “Monza” name to the twin seater GP car, a shortened version of the Spider. The Alfa Romeo factory often added the name of events won to the name of a car.

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This is the 125S, the very first model to bear the Ferrari badging. Although preceded by Enzo Ferrari’s Auto Avio Costruzioni 815 of 1940, the 125 S was the first vehicle to bear the Ferrari name when it debuted on May 11, 1947 at the Piacenza racing circuit. Like the 815, it was a racing sports car, but unlike its Fiat-powered 8-cylinder predecessor, the 125 S featured a V12 engine (the “125”), a trait it shared with most Ferrari cars of the following decades. Only 2 were built before the 125 S would be replaced by the 159 S later in the year. The 125 S used a steel tube-frame chassis and had a double wishbone suspension with transverse leaf springs in front with a live axle in the rear. Hydraulic power drum brakes were specified front and rear. It was powered by Gioacchino Colombo’s 1497 cc 60° V12, which produced 118 bhp at 6,800 rpm . This was a single overhead camshaft design with 2 valves per cylinder and three double-choke Weber 30DCF carburettors. Enzo Ferrari wanted the 125 S to use a five-speed gearbox as it matched the high revving V12 better than that of a traditional four-speed gearbox. The 125 S debuted at the Circuito di Piacenza, driven by Franco Cortese, but was unable to finish the race, despite a favourable showing against the strong Maserati 6CS 1500s. Two weeks later, the 125 S claimed Ferrari’s first victory at the Grand Prix of Rome on the Terme di Caracalla Circuit, where it was also driven by Cortese. The car had spun a bearing in practice, and was repaired in the workshop of Tino Martinoli, who later came to America with the Ferrari Indy car team. The 125 S won six of its fourteen races in 1947, though drivers Clemente Biondetti and Giuseppe Navone were unable to win the 1947 Mille Miglia in it. Both of the two 125 S cars built in 1947 were dismantled, and their parts are thought to have been re-used in production of the 159 or 166 models. Recently, the chassis with serial number 010I was used in the restoration of a 125 S. It is rumoured that 010I is actually s/n 01C. The story goes that 01C was re-stamped as 010I, and sold to a customer as a new car. Upon taking receipt of the car, the new owner immediately exclaimed, muletto!, which means “Test mule” in Italian, as he could clearly see that his supposedly new car was in fact a used, well-raced car. Ferrari made a new invoice for the car, including a considerable rebate given the car’s second-hand nature. Still in 166 Spyder Corsa configuration, the car was sold to Symbolic Motors. Close inspection of the chassis and its serial number led to the discovery of an old stamping that could possibly read 01C. It had been covered by an aluminium plate which bore the serial number 010I. Subsequently, the car was sold to its current owner, who refitted the chassis with a body similar to the factory’s 125 S replica, which was built by Michelotto in 1987. The alleged 01C made its public debut at the Pebble Beach Concours d’Elegance, and was entered as a “Ferrari 125 S”. The car continues to be the subject of much debate among Ferrari historians and enthusiasts; recent developments indicate that the restamped serial number was in fact a correction and not an alteration.

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225S Touring: The Ferrari 225 S was a sports racing car produced by Ferrari in 1952. It was an evolution over the preceding Ferrari 212 Export with important engine upgrades that greatly improved power output. The model was extensively used in competition, winning many international races. The most important include 1952 Monaco Grand Prix for sports cars, Portuguese Grand Prix, Coppa d’Oro di Sicilia, Coppa della Toscana, Coppa d’Oro delle Dolomiti and many others. It was the final Colombo V12 engine iteration before the 250-family stretched it to 3.0-litres capacity. The 1952 Ferrari 225 S was a continued development from the 212 Export sports car. The new car shared many common aspects over the predecessor with some important improvements. With the similar chassis, so did the wheelbase and track measurements remained the same. The V12 engine received a slightly larger total displacement, due to a bigger bore. The power output benefited greatly from Aurelio Lampredi’s technical research. The engine improvements consisted of an innovative and more efficient intake manifold design and an upgraded distribution system. Those improvement will be carried over to the next generation of Colombo V12-engined cars that debuted the very same year. Most cars used tried and tested tubular steel spaceframe chassis. Those had an “ED” or “EL” serial number suffix. Alternatively the 225 S could be based on an innovative “Tuboscocca” chassis and sport an “ET” suffix. In total 21 cars were produced. All were right-hand drive as was common for a racing cars. Some were converted from the 212 Export range, like the s/n 0104E, 0170ET or 0190ET. Some were even of a 166 MM ancestry like the s/n 0152EL, the very first 225 S.Fourteen open spyder cars were created, bodied by Vignale to a Giovanni Michelotti design. One particular example with a unique bodywork of open style wings was produced. The s/n 0176ED, commissioned by Antonio Stagnoli, also featured small inboard headlights and an outside spare wheel flush with the rear trunk. Additionally six closed Berlinettas also with a Vignale coachwork were made. There was also a single Touring Barchetta, s/n 0166ED, that was raced by Eugenio Castellotti. Ferrari continued to lose interest in Carrozzeria Touring and focused on other coachbuilders. Vignale was still in favour but would soon be replaced by Pinin Farina and Scaglietti. The 225 S Colombo V12 engine was based on the power unit from the Ferrari 212, but had the cylinders bored out a further 2 mm as opposed to an older 2.6-litre engine. The internal measurements were now 70 by 58.8 mm of bore and stroke and the resulting total capacity was 2,715.46 cc. Thanks to Lampredi’s redesigned intake manifold and distribution, the power output grew from 165 PS to a 210 PS at 7200 rpm. Compression ratio was 8.5:1. The engine had a single overhead camshaft per cylinder bank, actuating two valves. Fuel was fed by three Weber 36DCF carburettors. There was also a single spark plug per cylinder served by two ignition coils. A single-plate clutch and a wet sump lubrication was installed.The front suspension was independent with double wishbones, transverse leaf spring and hydraulic shock absorbers. The rear consisted of a live axle with twin semi-elliptical springs and hydraulic shock absorbers. The preceding 212 Export had a Houdaille-type shock absorbers and single springs at the rear. Hydraulic drum brakes were mounted on all wheels and transmission was a five-speed, non-synchronised type. The Ferrari 225 S was mounted upon two types of chassis design. One was a tubular spaceframe created of an elliptical-section steel tubes, the other was a tubular semi-monocoque called “Tuboscocca”. Both those chassis were already used on the previous sports cars and retained 2,250 mm (88.6 in) of wheelbase. The tubular chassis known as the “Tuboscocca” was designed and realised by Gilberto Colombo’s Gilco chassis specialist company, exclusively for the racing cars. “Tubo-scocca” in Italian meaning “tube-body”. Few select examples received a smaller diameter tubular trellis-frame with additional truss-type cross-braces. The new chassis was slightly lighter than the original tubular steel chassis and provided increased rigidity and additional strength. This design was introduced on a 1951 Ferrari 212 Inter Touring Berlinetta, s/n 0141ET, that was used in competition by “Pagnibon” (Pierre Boncompagni) and was later offered for the 212 Export and 225 S ranges. In total, eight 225 S’ were mounted on the “Tuboscocca” chassis, six Vignale Spyders and further two Berlinettas. According to Gilco only fifteen such chassis were built in total, initially for the 212 Export range. The first outing for the Ferrari 225 S was at the 1952 Giro di Sicilia. Six cars were entered. Four did not finish the race altogether. The best score was a fifth place overall and a win in class by Eugenio Castellotti and Annibale Broglia in an only Touring Barchetta s/n 0166ED, entered by Scuderia Guastella, followed by another 225 S Vignale driven by Franco Bordoni. All of the fasters cars were in a lower capacity categories. The first victory came later the same year at the Coppa d’Oro di Sicilia. Castellotti drove the same barchetta as before. For the 1952 Mille Miglia, seven cars were entered with the best result a 2nd in class and 10th overall by Bordoni. Later the same year, at the 12 Hours of Casablanca race, Jean Lucas with Jacques Péron achieved a second place, only a lap behind the winning Talbot-Lago T26GS. Later, Bruno Sterzi and Arnoldo Roselli scored a victory at the Coppa della Toscana in a Vignale Berlinetta s/n 0178ED. For the 1952 Monaco Grand Prix for sports cars, Ferrari had entered no less than six 225 S’, out of twenty participants. The Ferrari 225 S had scored first five places in the race. After 100 laps, Vittorio Marzotto was the winner, followed by Eugenio Castellotti, Stagnoli / Biondetti, Jean Lucas and “Pagnibon”. Giovanni Bracco driving the 212/225 S did not finish the race. It was the first ever win in Monaco for Ferrari. Luigi Faglioli lost his life because of the accident during practice. Later the same year, Lucas won at the Circuit d’Orleans and Pietro Palmieri won Trieste-Opicina hillclimb The 1952 24 Hours of Le Mans was contested by “Pagnibon” and Tom Cole. They drove a Vignale Berlinetta, s/n 0152EL, entered by Scuderia Ferrari. The team retired wth an electrical problems after eleven hours of racing. Later the same year, at the Portuguese Grand Prix for sports cars that was organised on the Circuito da Boavista, Ferrari had entered five cars. Eugenio Castellotti with Scuderia Guastella had come first with his Touring Barchetta. Second place went to privateer Casimiro de Oliveira in a Vignale Spyder. Antonio Stagnoli in a unique Vignale Spyder, s/n 0176ED, was third. Two other cars retired. Later, Jean Luca scored another victory at the Circuit de Bressuire in the same berlinetta he drove at Casablanca. For the 1952 Targa Florio only one car was raced. A “Tuboscocca” Vignale Spyder, s/n 0194ET, driven by Tom Cole finished eleventh overall and fourth in class. Later the same year, at the Coppa d’Oro delle Dolomiti, four cars were entered. All had finished, but Paolo Marzotto with Marino Marini, entered as Scuderia Marzotto had won that race. The same duo in the same Vignale Spyder s/n 0172ET, also won the Giro delle Calabria, and Marzotto alone also won at the Circuito di Senigallia in a ‘Sport+2.0’ category. At the first edition of the 12 Hours of Pescara race, Luigi Piotti and Vittorugo Mallucci finished third overall. They drove the 212/225 S s/n 0104E and the winning car was the new 3.0-litre 250 S. Ferrari 225 S scored second and third in the first installment of the Goodwood Nine Hours. Tom Cole with Graham Whitehead were second and Bobby Baird/Roy Salvadori duo, third. Also in 1952, Bruno Sterzi in a Vignale Spyder, s/n 0178ED, won the Coppa Inter-Europa on Monza. In September 1952, the second edition of the Tour de France marathon was contested by “Pagnibon” and Adolfo Macchieraldo. They drove a berlinetta s/n 0152EL, and after eight days of racing, finished second overall. Years later Ferrari will dominate this race in their 3.0-litre powered berlinettas. Later the same year, Roborto Bonomi won the National Buenos Aires in a spyder. In 1953 at the National Buenos Aires, Ferrari 225 S scored 1-2-3 victory. Winner was Roberto Bonomi in the same spyder as before. José M. Collazo was second and José-Maria Ibanez, third. Later the same year, Ferrari entered three cars for the 12 Hours of Sebring in the US. Two cars did not finish but the Vignale Berlinetta of the Robert Yung and Peter S. Yung arrived at an eight place overall and second in class. At the Targa Florio, the best result for the 225 S was a ninth place of Antonio Stagnoli.Eugenio Castellotti retired with a broken axle.

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250GT Tour de France: The original 250 GT Berlinetta, nicknamed the “Long Wheelbase Berlinetta”, was also called the “Tour de France” after competing in the 10-day Tour de France automobile race, which the car won in 1956, 157 and 1958. Seventy-seven Tour de France cars were built, of which a number were sold for GT races from 1956 through 1959. Construction was handled by Carrozzeria Scaglietti based on a Pinin Farina design. The engine began at 240 PS but eventually rose to 260 PS. Pirelli Cinturato 165R400 tyres (CA67) were standard. At the 1956 Geneva Motor Show, Scaglietti displayed their own 250 GT prototype, which became known as the limited-production, Series I, “no-louvre” 250 GT Berlinetta. The first customer car was built in May 1956, with production now the responsibility of Scaglietti in Modena. Fourteen “no-louvre” and nine “14-louvre” Series I and II Berliettas were made. There were four series of 250 GT Berlinettas. In mid-1957 the Series III cars were introduced, with three louvres and covered headlights. Eighteen were produced. The 36 Series IV cars; retained the covered headlights and had a single vent louvre. Zagato also made five “no-louvre” superlight cars to Ugo Zagato’s design.

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The Ferrari 375 MM, was a sports racing car produced in 1953 up to 1955 for the road cars. It was named “375” for the unitary displacement of one cylinder in the 4.5 L V12 engine, and the “MM” stood for the Mille Miglia race. In total 26 units were made, including four converted from the 340 MM. The first prototype was a Vignale Spyder and three next cars were Pinin Farina Berlinettas, all converted from the Ferrari 340 MM. Majority of the cars would be bodied by Pinin Farina in a spider style. The engine was based on its Ferrari 375 F1 counterpart, but with shorter stroke and bigger bore, for the customer cars and unchanged for the factory ones. Perhaps the most known 375 MM is the Pininfarina “Bergman Coupe”, s/n 0456AM, commissioned in 1954 by director Roberto Rossellini for his wife, actress Ingrid Bergman. Rossellini also owned another 375 MM spyder, s/n 0402AM, which sustained a crash and was rebodied into a coupe by Scaglietti. The Scaglietti coupe was subsequently bought by the Microsoft executive Jon Shirley and restored by Ferrari specialist Butch Dennison. It would later become the first postwar Ferrari to win Best of Show at the Pebble Beach Concours d’Elegance. The list of notable examples also includes a coupé created by Carrozzeria Ghia to a Giovanni Michelotti design. It was the last Ferrari ever to be bodied by this Turinese coachbuilder. The car was presented at the Torino Motor Show and the New York Auto Show, both in 1955. The 375 MM was available with two different engines, both of around 4.5 L capacity. One was for customer cars and the other for the factory teams. Factory race drivers received a straight derivative of the Formula One unit from the 375 F1. Designated as the tipo 102, it had the same total capacity of 4493.73 cc from the same internal measurements as the 375 F1, at 80 by 74.5 mm of bore and stroke. The new updated engine, codenamed as the tipo 108, was reserved for the customer cars. The engine had a changed capacity of 4522.68 cc, thanks to its 84 by 68 mm of bore and stroke, and would also be mounted in the 375 America road car. Both versions used three Weber 40IF/4C or 42DCZ carburettors and could produce 340 PS at 7000 rpm. The chassis was of a tipo 102 designation and was derived from its predecessor, the 340 MM, also made out of welded steel tubes. Wheelbase was slightly longer than before, now at 2,600 mm (102.4 in). The suspension setup was also inherited from the 340 MM, but with an addition of the Houdaille-type hydraulic shock absorbers in the front and rear. Although intended for the Mille Miglia, the 375 MM was also raced with limited success in the Carrera Panamericana, scoring fourth place in 1953 and finishing second in 1954. Other major successes in 1953 included overall wins at Spa 24 Hours, driven by Giuseppe Farina and Mike Hawthorn duo, 12 Hours of Pescara with Hawthorn and Umberto Maglioli and 12 Hours of Casablanca, won by Farina and Piero Scotti. The 375 MM with Alberto Ascari and Luigi Villoresi, was contesting the 1953 24 Hours of Le Mans alongside its 4.1-litre siblings, to no avail due to a clutch problems. In the 1000 km Nürburgring race of 1953, the 375 MM scored another victory with Giuseppe Farina, this time aided by Alberto Ascari. This race along with Spa 24 Hours counted towards the 1953 World Sportscar Championship, won for Ferrari in due honour to the 375 MM. In 1954 in Argentina, Giuseppe Farina with Umberto Maglioli won the 1000 km Buenos Aires, that was a championship race. On 760 km track of Coppa della Toscana, Piero Scotti won in the 375 MM ahead of Gordini. Later, the 375 MM competed in races in Europe, South and North Americas, winning many of them. The car did not score any more championship points as it was replaced by a bigger displacement derivative, the 375 Plus.

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The Ferrari 126C was designed to replace the highly successful but obsolete 312T series in use since 1975. The basic chassis was almost identical to the previous car but the smaller and narrower V6 turbo engine suited the ground effect aerodynamics now needed to be competitive, and was a better package overall. During engine development Ferrari experimented with a Comprex pressure wave supercharger; however, due to packaging issue the engine was finally fitted with twin KKK turbochargers and produced around 600 bhp in qualifying trim, detuned to 550 bhp for the races proper. The car was first tested during the Italian Grand Prix in 1980. In testing it proved far faster than the 312T5 chassis the team were then using and Gilles Villeneuve preferred it, though he had reservations about the handling. Early unreliability of the turbo engine put paid to Villeneuve’s 1981 championship hopes but he did score back to back victories in Monaco and Spain, as well as several podium places. Because of the problematic handling the 126CK was at its best on fast tracks with long straights such as Hockenheim, Silverstone, Monza and the Österreichring. The car proved to be very fast but Gilles Villeneuve found the handling to be very difficult, calling the car “a big red Cadillac”. According to Villeneuve’s teammate Didier Pironi and English engineer Harvey Postlethwaite, who arrived at Ferrari well into the 1981 season, it was not the chassis that was the main cause of the car’s handling problems, but the very bad aerodynamics of the car. Postlethwaite later said that the 126CK “had a quarter of the downforce that the Williams or Brabham had that year”. The poor aerodynamics of the car, coupled to the chassis’ hard suspension, created a tendency to make the car slide into corners before the ground effect pulled the car back on to the track. This had the undesired effects of exposing the drivers to even larger g-forces than the Williams FW07 or Brabham BT49 and making the car tend to overuse its tyres. The engine had massive turbo lag, followed by a steep power curve; this upset the balance of the chassis; although the engine was the most powerful engine that year, even more so than the Renault. At the Österreichring one gaggle of 6 naturally aspirated, better handling cars formed behind Didier Pironi for a number of laps, followed by three other cars shortly afterwards: none of them, however, could find their way past easily due to the Ferrari’s power advantage on the very fast Austrian circuit. The same thing also happened at Jarama that year; 4 cars were stuck behind Villeneuve on the tight and twisty circuit, but he was able to hold off the cars behind him thanks to the car’s power advantage.

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This is the F2008 car. which Scuderia Ferrari used to compete in the 2008 Formula One season. The car was unveiled to the public on January 6, 2008. It featured a new standard Electronic Control Unit (ECU), the electronic system that controls all the cars, produced by McLaren Electronic Systems. This was included to comply with the new regulations. The ECU also removes most of the driver aids used in previous seasons, including traction control, engine braking and electronically assisted starting system. It also makes the management of the differential, engine and gearchanges easier. The car weighed more than last season’s F2007 chassis due to rule changes which included the gearbox which had to be used for four consecutive races, higher side protection around the drivers helmet etc. World champion Kimi Räikkönen gave the car its first shakedown at Ferrari’s Fiorano test track on January 7, 2008. With 8 wins in the season, and 172 points, Ferrari claimed the Constructor’s Championship at the end of the season.

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FERRARIs of TODAY

Final display before reaching the gift shop and the exit were a couple of the most recent Ferrari products.

The latest of the 2-seater V8 cars is the F8 Tributo, a surprise newcomer at the 2019 Geneva Show, and the successor to the 488 GTB and the most powerful mid-engined V8 berlinetta in the history of the brand. The new Ferrari F8 Tributo is powered by the company’s twin-turbo 3.9-litre V8 engine, here tuned to produce 710 bhp and 568lb/ft (770Nm) of peak torque. The numbers are the exact same with the special 488 Pista. Ferrari claims that the new F8 Tributo is capable of a 0-62mph (100km/h) in 2.9 seconds, with 0-124mph (200km/h) in 7.8 seconds before hitting a top speed of 211mph (340km/h). It’s not a secret that the new F8 Tributo is the latest evolution of the aluminium 458 platform, with Ferrari saying that their latest mid-engine berlinetta is “a bridge to a new design language”. The new supercar blends in new design elements with aero features such as an S-Duct at the front, which on its own increases downforce by 15 percent compared to a standard 488 GTB. The rear end of Ferrari’s McLaren 720S rival marks the return of the classic Ferrari twin light clusters, while the engine cover is now made out of Lexan and features louvres to extract hot air and remind us of the iconic F40. The chassis of the new F8 Tributo employs Ferrari’s latest version of the Side Slip Angle Control traction management system, which aims to make sliding the car around manageable even for the less experienced drivers. The changes over the 488 GTB are less prominent once you look inside the cabin; the layout of the redesigned dashboard remains the same as before, only now there are completely new door panels and a centre console, as well as a new steering wheel design. The passenger gets a 7-inch touchscreen display. First deliveries of the new Ferrari F8 Tributo started earlier in 2020.

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Launched at the 2015 Geneva Show, the 488GTB followed the lead set by the California T in bringing turbocharging into a modern-day, mid-engined V8 Ferrari supercar for the first time. The engine is completely new when compared with its V8 stablemate, not only in components but also in feel and character. It is a twin-turbocharged 3902cc unit whilst that in the California T is 3855cc. In the 488 GTB, it produces 660bhp at 8000rpm and 560lb ft at 3000rpm. Both outputs are significant increases over the normally aspirated 4.5-litre V8 used in the 562 bhp 458 Italia and 597 bhp 458 Speciale, and also greater than the car’s biggest rival, the McLaren 650S. The torque figure of the 488 GTB is such that it also exceeds the 509lb ft at 6000rpm of the normally aspirated V12 used in the range-topping Ferrari F12 Berlinetta. The mighty new engine in the 488 GTB drives the rear wheels through a revised seven-speed dual-clutch automatic gearbox derived from the 458. It features a new ‘Variable Torque Management’ system which, Ferrari says, “unleashes the engine’s massive torque smoothly and powerfully right across the rev range”. The gear ratios are also tuned to “deliver incredibly progressive acceleration when the driver floors the throttle”. The 488 GTB can crack 0-62mph in just 3.0sec, 0-124mph in 8.4sec and reach a top speed of 205mph. Its 0-62mph and 0-124mph times match the McLaren 650S’s, but the Woking car’s top speed is slightly higher at 207mph. The engine also accounts for the ‘488’ element of the car’s name, because each of the engine’s eight cylinders is 488cc in capacity when rounded up. The GTB suffix, standing for Gran Turismo Berlinetta, is a hallmark of previous mid-engined V8 Ferraris such as the 308 GTB. Not only is the new turbo engine more potent than the 4.5-litre V8 from the 458 Italia, but it is also more economical. Combined fuel economy is rated at 24.8mpg, compared with 21.2mpg in the 458 Italia, and CO2 emissions are 260g/km – a 47g/km improvement. Ferrari’s HELE engine stop-start system features on the 488 GTB. Developments on the dynamic side include a second generation of the Side Slip Angle Control system, called SSC2. This allows the driver to oversteer without intruding, unless it detects a loss of control. The SSC2 now controls the active dampers, in addition to the F1-Trac traction control system and E-Diff electronic differential. Ferrari says the result is “more precise and less invasive, providing greater longitudinal acceleration out of corners” and flatter, more stable behaviour during “complex manoeuvres”. Learnings from the Ferrari XX programme have also been incorporated into the 488 GTB, something that Ferrari says allows all drivers and not just professionals, to make the most of its electronic and vehicle control systems. It also claims the 488 GTB is “the most responsive production model there is”, with responses comparable to a track car. The 488 GTB has lapped Ferrari’s Fiorano test track in 1min 23sec – two seconds faster than the 458 Italia, and half a second quicker than the 458 Speciale. The dimensions of the 488 GTB – it is 4568mm in length, 1952mm in width and 1213mm in height – closely match the 458 Italia from which it has evolved. Its dry weight is 1370kg when equipped with lightweight options – 40kg more than the McLaren 650S. The new look, styled at the Ferrari Styling Centre, features several new aerodynamic features that improve downforce and reduce drag. Most notable is the addition of active aerodynamics at the rear through a ‘blown’ rear spoiler, where air is channelled from the base of the glass engine cover under the spoiler. This contributes to the 50% increase in downforce over the 458 Italia. Also new is a double front spoiler, an aerodynamic underbody, a large air intake at the front that references the 308 GTB, a diffuser with active flaps, new positioning for the exhaust flaps and new-look lights. The interior has been redesigned to be made more usable, including new switchgear, air vents and instrument panel. The multi-function steering wheel remains, while the infotainment system gets a new interface and graphics. The Spider followed the closed coupe model six months later, and it soon became the bigger seller of the pair, as was the case with the 458 models.

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RENT A FERRARI

Nothing to do with Ferrari, as the company is constantly at pains to point out, are the various rental companies situated on either side of the museum, from whom you can hire one of a number of different Ferrari models for anything from 20 minutes or an hour to rather longer to get behind the wheel yourself. These appeared also to be open and to be finding customers even in these quieter than usual times.

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As ever, I very much enjoyed this visit. Although I’ve been to the Galleria Ferrari many times in the last 10 years, the fact that there are new displays all the time means that even though I’ve seen some of the cars more than once (and they are distinctive and in many cases unique), the way they are presented changes every time and there is always something new to learn and a new perspective to acquire on the history and heritage of this amazing marque. I commend a visit to everyone who loves cars.

More details can be found from the museum’s own website: https://musei.ferrari.com/en/maranello

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